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Define ageism

6. A process of systematic stereotyping and discrimination against people just because they are old.


What percentage of the world population is expected to be over 60 by 2050?


In the more developed regions (20% in 2000 vs 33% in 2050)

In less developed regions (8% in 2000 vs 20% in 2050)

The number of people over 80 years old is also expected to rise by 4 fold

The number of people by 2050 who are not able to look after themselves is forecast to increase by 4 fold


What are the biggest killers in the poorest countries?

Heart disease, stroke and chronic lung disease


What is the change in fertility rate and mortality rate?



Apart from fertility rate and mortality rate what is contributing to the older population?

Health education programmes such as those relating to AIDs
Malaria prevention
Improvements in public health (housing, clean water, nutrition)

The baby boomers born after the Second World War will be entering their early 80s by 2031 and overall mortality rates are expected to continue to improve.

Older people are increasingly healthy

There is an emphasis on preserving health and fitness into old age


Which is faster, the rate of population ageing in developing countries or the rate of population ageing in developed countries?

Developing countries and it is taking place at much lower levels of socio-economic development than is the case in developed countries


What is the fastest growing age bad in the world

80 +


What is life expectancy in Scotland?

Male = 74.3
Female = 79.4

Male = 79.2
Female = 83.7


How have migration rates changed in Scotland?

History of net out migration usually

Since 1960s the net out migration has greatly reduced

In the late 1980s, early 1990s and mid-2000s, Scotland experienced net migration gains


How will healthcare change in response to the ageing population?

Increase in the number of geriatricians and health care professionals involved in the care of the elderly

Increase in the facilities required for care of the elderly

The treatment of long term conditions (diabetes CVD and renal disease) is moving from secondary care to primary/community care (the prevalence of these diseases increases as population ages)
Specific health promotion campaigns aimed at the elderly


What are the social implications associated with the ageing population?

Increasingly dependant on families and or carers

Increase demand for carers and nursing homes

Increase emphasis on providing social activities for the elderly

The role of the elderly as grandparents and carers of grandchildren is likely to change

Housing demands are likely to change as more elderly people live alone


What are the economic implications associated with the ageing population?

Retirement / pension age is increasing

Finding employment may become harder for young people, older people being required to work blocks the top end of the employment sector

Proportionately less people will be paying into tax and pension funds, making it increasingly difficult to obtain an adequate return from pension funds

State pension fund may become inadequate

Increasing cost of free personal care for the elderly policy in Scotland


What are the political factors associated with the ageing population?

Current decision making and workforce planning must take into account of the ageing population

Increasing elderly population will potentially have the power to influence political decision making in relation to their specific concerns


What is the leading cause of death in women in England?

Dementia and Alzheimers


What is the leading cause of death in men in England?

Heart disease


What is increasing alongside life expectancy?

Healthy living expectancy - the population is now living longer and spending more years in good health


How is the number of years spent in poor health varying with the umber of years spent alive in the ageing population

Increase in the number of years spent in poor health

Proportionately the time spent in poor health and good health has stayed the same


What is the idea of inequity?

Life expectancy and heathy living expectancy can vary depending on socioeconomic class


Can you give an example of a third sector organisation that help patients live healthier and better quality lives?

Age concern


How is the number of carers changing?


Carer 'turnover' means that caring will touch the lives of most of the population as we all need or provide care or support family members caring for loved ones at come point in our lives.

3 in 5 people will be carers at some point in their lives


Give examples of the work that carers do

82% provide practical help such as preparing meals, doing laundry or shopping.
76% keep an eye on the person they care for
68% keep them company
62% take the person they care for out
49% help the person they care for with financial matters
47% help the person they care for deal with care services and benefits
38% help with aspects of personal care


What is the impact of caring?

Many live in households where non one is in paid work

Drop in income as a result of caring

Cut backs on essentials like food and heating

Financial circumstances affecting their health

Miss out on financial support as a result of not getting the right information and advice

More likely to be in bad health than non-carers if they are working around the clock

Impacts relationships with friends and family

Feel like society does not think about them at all


What does the term multimorbidity mean?

'The co-existence of two or more long-term conditions in an individual'

Normal in the primary care setting


What are the options for care?

Living in own home with support from family

Living in own home with support from social services

Sheltered housing

Residential home

Nursing home care


What are anticipatory care plans?

“Advance and anticipatory care planning, as a philosophy, promotes discussion in which individuals, their care providers and often those close to them, make decisions with respect to their future health or personal and practical aspects of care”


When should anticipatory care be done?

At any time in life that seems appropriate



Who should perform ACP?

Anyone with an appropriate relationship


How should ACP be done?

Thinking ahead and making plans


Write it down!


How can ACP be shared?

KIS - key information summary

Other communication


What is involved in the legal anticipatory care plan?

Welfare power of the attorney
Financial power of the attorney