Flashcards in Aggression: Hormones Deck (14):
What are hormones?
- chemical messengers
- travel in the blood
- slower than neurotransmitters
- affect metabolism, mood, reproduction and sexual function
Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Where is it released from?
Adrenaline and noradrenaline: What does it prepare the body for?
- provides the body with energy for fight or flight
Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Haller and Kruk (2003)
- the two hormones are influenced by the limbic system
- they lead to aggression in terms of stressors
- intense/long term stressors can lead to aggression
Testosterone: Which sex is more aggressive? Give statistics.
- men commit 50-70% of all violent crime
- Raine found 5% of males were characterised by antisocial behaviours
Testosterone: When does crime rise in humans and what might account for this?
- early to mid teens
- this is when testosterone levels are increased
Testosterone: Kalat (1998)
- measured 15-25 y/o males
- those with highest testosterone levels showed highest aggression (crime stats)
Testosterone: Dabbs et al (1987)
- saliva tests to measure testosterone
- 89 male prisoners (some violent, some not)
- violent: higher testosterone levels
- rated as tough by peers
Testosterone: What are the findings from castrated non-humans?
- castrated male rodents
- least aggressive due to drop in testosterone
- injected with T, aggression increased
Cortisol: What is it? Why is it released?
- steroid hormone
- produced by adrenal gland
- in response to stress
- also called stress hormone
Cortisol: Barzman et al (2013)
- 17 boys, aged 7-9
- measuring cortisol in saliva
- aggression measured in 2 rating scales
- positive correlation between cortisol and aggression
Corticosterone: Compare to cortisol.
- similar structure
- different hormone
Corticosterone: Adelson (2004)
- raised stimulation of aggression control centre in the brain went with raised stress hormones
- lowered stimulation went with lower level of stress hormone
- in humans: this could explain why stress can lead to aggression and vice versa