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Flashcards in Aggression - studies Deck (29):

Research support for testosterone. participants played a competitve game which they lost, they were then asked whether they wanted a rematch or to do an unrelated task. By losing, and losing status, some participants testosterone increased and most of these chose a rematch if it didn’t increased, they chose the unrelated task.

Mehta and Josephs (2006)


Argued tesosterone only leads to aggression when cortisol levels are low - cortisol normally acts as a blocker for testosterone.

Carre and Mehta (2011)


Research support for MAOA. found those with high MAOA activity were less aggressive and more cooperative in a money sharing task

Mertens et al (2011)


Contradictory evidence to genetics. conducted a met analysis – found no single gene that was linked to aggression – said it was a combination of hundreds of genes

Vassos et al (2014)


contradictory ethological. If its evolutionary, why are there cultural differences? i.e. there is more homicide in the southern states and people from the south of USA are more likely to react when insult in the experiment.

Nisbitt et al (1996)


contradictory evidence for ritualistic aggression – observed chimps in a national park and over 4 years, members of 1 community brutally killed the members of another even if the victims showed as defenceless or appeasment

Goodall (2010)


research support for mate retention stategies – proved a positive correlation between the prevelance of mate retention strategies and aggression

Shackelford (2005)


can explain gender differences – women are less aggressive because to survive they wouldn’t be aggressive as it would put their own life at danger

Campbell (1999)


Real world application to bullying, as they want to share their positive side, get them to engange in sports so they can show their prowess in an alternative way and not bully

Rigby (2010


Contradictory of frustration aggression - found that participants who punched a punch bag to release aggression became more angry – like putting petrol on a fire to put it out

Bushman (2002)


V – research support for frustration aggression participants had to complete a jigsaw and frustrated in 1 of 3 ways. 1) puzzle was impossible, 2) ran out of time cos confederate kept interupting, 3) insulted when they did it wrong. Then had to do an electric shocks to a confederate when they got a task wrong, p’s from condition 3 delivered the most

Green (1968)


V - slt - found aggressive boys tended to group together in friendship groups of other aggressive boys. These were strong and long lasting friendships – ‘training grounds’ for aggression – X however, cause and effect is unclear
- V – real world application – encouraging kids to be friends with those that arent aggressive

Poulin and Boivin (2000)


v - support for deindivudation - lychnigns

Mullen 1986


v - support for deindividatoin - found those who were more anonymised online were more aggressive

Douglas and McGarty 2001


x - contradictory for deindivduation

Gergen 1986


Support for importation model
560 prisoners either sent to high secutiry prison or low security prisoner. They have similar aggression levels – in high security, 33% in low prisons and 36% in high were involved in aggressive acts – not significant suggesting situational factors don’t make a difference

- Camp and Gaes (2005)


V – support for situational model – – analysed motives for homicides in prisons – found most common was arguments over drugs, homosexual relationships and personal property

Cunningham (2010)


V – support for desensitisation - showed p’s violent and non violent films and measured arousal through skin conductance – found those who watched violence lots had less arousal

Krahé et al (2011) –


V- support for dishibition showed aggression in a film that was for vengeance – ps then gave more fake shocks because they didn’t think aggression was bad

– Berkowitz and Alioto (1973)


√ - support for reciprocal model - studied 94 athletes



√- support for basal model

Mazur et al


Who came up with Importation model

Irwin and Cressey


Who came up with Deprivation model



X – deprivation model contradicted – studied prisoners in prisons that allowed conjugal vists- this didn’t reduce aggression

Hensley et al


√ - Support for video game influences - Experimental method - – p’s playd either a violent or non violent game. Those who played violent game delivered louder blasts of white noise to an opponent

Bartholemew and anderson


√ - Support for video game influence Correlational study - studied juvenile offenders – found a positive correlation between their aggression levels and the amount of violent video games they played



√ - Support for video game influences - Longitudinal - – studied new zealanders until they were 26 years and found a positive correlation between the amount of tv they watched (violent or not) and aggressive behaviour later in life – e.g. antisocial behaviour orders

Robertson et al


Who came up with the 6 aspects of FAP



Who came up with the 2 main examples of mate retention strategies

Daly and Wilson