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393 Final Prep > Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aging Deck (21)
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1
Q

Cardiovascular

A

less heart muscle fibers, heart and vessels less responsible to sympathetic stimulation, more collagen and calcification, less filling capacity, less stroke volume → slower resting and maximum heart rate, higher blood pressure, less ability of heart and vessels to respond to changes, stress.

2
Q

Respiratory

A

less chest wall compliance, less alveolar ventilation, less respiratory muscle strength, less elasticity, less ventilation → less effective mucus clearance, reduced capacity for aerobic exercise, higher respiratory rate.

3
Q

Musculoskeletal

A

less muscle mass, more body fat, less body H20, less H20 in muscles, tendons, joints, increased bone demineralization, increased joint degeneration, erosion, calcification –> overall stiffness of muscle and joint

4
Q

Integumentary

A

decreased elastin, decreased subcutaneous fat, decreased vascularity –> smaller fat cushion, less blood flow, less resilient skin

5
Q

Hepatic

A

reduced liver size, reduced blood flow –> reduced metabolic function

6
Q

Renal

A

decreased # of nephrons, GFR declines, decreased urine concentration ability, decreased H concentration ability –> decreased excretion

7
Q

GI

A

decreased GI motility, decreased saliva production, smaller gastric capacity –> dry mouth, early satiety

8
Q

Genitourinary

A

vaginal dryness, longer time to erection, less forceful ejaculation, decreased sperm motility, decreased bladder size, pelvic muscle atrophy –> changes in sex, urinary retention (males), urinary incontinence (females)

9
Q

Neurological

A

nerve cells degenerate and atrophy, decrease # of neurons, decrease neurotransmitters, decrease rate of conduction of nerve impulses, loss of taste, hearing issues –> slower processes, vision changes, hearing loss, decreases sensations

10
Q

Endocrine/Metabolic

A

decreased BMR, decreased thermoregulation, decreased febrile response –> less appetite, less tolerance to cold, no fever with infection

11
Q

Immune

A

Complex alterations in nonspecific and adaptive immune function, increased risk for infection, increase incidence for certain autoimmune diseases, increased risk for malignancies

12
Q

Sleep

A

longer time to fall asleep, frequent nighttime awakenings, little or no deep sleep, REM sleep unchanged

13
Q

Decreased renal function means:

A

DRUG TOXICITY

14
Q

Changes in Absorption

A

Rate - delayed; decreased GI motility; decreased gastric emptying; decreased CYP450; decreased p-gp activity

15
Q

Changes in Distribution

A

numerous alterations; decreased albumin; decreased lean body mass and total body water; decreased p-gp expression and activity; increased relative body fat

16
Q

Changes in Metabolism

A

difficult to predict how this is effected patient to patient; decreased albumin; decreased protein binding; increased alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein; decreased hepatic blood flow; decreased hepatic metabolism

17
Q

Changes in Excretion

A

most important change reduced renal excretion = increased risk of drug toxicity; decreased biliary excretion. serum creatine levels important.

18
Q

Programmed Senescence Theory

A

Finite # of times a cell can undergo division; genetically programmed - with each cell division a small amount of DNA is lost at the end of the chromosome; activate by cell damage

19
Q

Telomeres

A

“caps” on the end of chromosomes, protective, a tiny bit is cut off with each division, eventually you get to the actual chromosome and it dies.

20
Q

Reactive Oxygen Species

A

“Free radicals,” can be caused by many things: UV light, radiation, metabolism, inflammation, air pollution. Can damage: mitochondria, lipids; Unpaired electrons looking for something to react with.

21
Q

Neuroendocrine Theory

A

Aging is “decreased ability to survive stress”

  1. Coordinating Communication
  2. Programming physiological responses
  3. Maintaining optimal functional state

HPA, stress master regulator, tired and less effective