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Block 5; Week 5 > Aging-Fisher > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aging-Fisher Deck (38):
1

What is primary aging?

this is the normal aging process that is universal to all humans
"healthy aging"

2

What is secondary aging?

this is aging associated with disease, disuse, or abuse

3

What is tertiary aging?

these are the rapid losses that occur right before death

4

Explain why late life are the psychological golden years (even if not physical golden years).

Get more:
More confidence
More empathy and generosity
Improved reliability and organizational skills
Improved problem solving
Improved emotion regulation
Less anxiety and negative affect
More contentment

5

What is the relationship b/w intellectual functioning & aging?

World knowledge (vocab etc) improve steadily into one's 70s.
Processing capacity activities of intellect, however, steadily decline after your 20s.

6

T/F Advertisers increase the amount of emotional ads when they are focused on an older demographic.

True

7

T/F As we age…emotional consequences and allocation of resources become increasingly intertwined

True.
**this appears to be critical for healthy aging.

8

How do older adults (healthy ones) compensate for decreased resources (as in less physical energy)?

they are more selective with the way they spend their resources--allocate them well, emotionally.

9

What is the significance of older adults having a positivity bias?

they have greater contentment
calm
more pleasure & less conflict in relationships

10

According to a National health survey...which age group reports the most psychological distress? Which age group reports the least?

Most psychological distress: 45-64 year olds
Least psychological distress: >65 yo

11

What do older couples show in their marriages that younger couples do not?

Less potential for conflict
Better negotiation skills
More potential for pleasure in several areas
Equivalent levels of mental and physical health
Fewer gender differences in sources of pleasure
More positive emotions
More empathic listening
More patience and flexibility

12

What is the downside to a positivity bias?

older adults may focus more on the potential benefits of health care & financial decision making rather than the downsides.
need to look at potential risks with these things.

13

What are some of the most important concerns of older adults?

health & well being of loved ones
staying independent
avoiding living in a nursing home
financial concerns
high QOL
Spirituality
Social Support
Emotionally Meaningful Activity

14

Explain the concept of compression of morbidity.

we want longer life expectancy, but with high QOL, not debilitating chronic illnesses.
**we want to delay the onset of disability. Making the duration b/w onset of disability & death shorter.

15

Man has fatal first heart attack at age 50. What is his morbidity & mortality?

Early Mortality
Short Morbidity

16

Spry 95-year old woman dying asymptomatically in her sleep. What is her morbidity & mortality?

Late Mortality.
Short Morbidity.
**Ideal!

17

T/F Regular running accelerates the aging process, due to joint injuries.

False!! It slows the effects of aging.
Elderly runners have fewer disabilities, longer life span, half as likely to die an early death.

18

What are some extraindividual factors that impact an older adult's health trajectory?

medical care
therapy & meds
external supports
social environment

19

What are some intraindividual factors that impact an older adult's health trajectory?

lifestyle & behavior changes-changes to alter disease
psychological coping-spirituality, positive affect
activity accomodations-choosing experiences that are gratifying

20

What is the greatest predictor of depression in older adults?

functional impairment
**why lifestyle changes to alter disease course is so important!!

21

What role does the physician play in promoting QOL?

listen, rather than assume
respect choice & autonomy-don't assume inability to consent
involve only family to help w/ consent
become informed about community resources
promote behavioral health
communicate with other providers
release medical information when appropriate

22

What are some causes of excess disability in early phase dementia?

**self-stigmatization
metamemory-hypervigilant in monitoring performance
social interaction becomes anxiety-provoking
social withdrawal & isolation
depression
**stigmatization by others
corrective feedback during conversation
assuming that all mistakes are due to dementia

23

Describe some causes of excess disability in middle & late phase dementia.

the environment becomes increasingly confusing-sensory impairments & difficulty understanding time
emergence of behavioral disturbances: aggression, disruptive vocalizations, wandering, paranoia

24

What are some treatment options for the cognitive symptoms of patients with dementia?

5 drugs approved that slow process, don't stop it.
they do have some side effects including: nausea, headache, dizziness

25

T/F There is an over-reliance on restraint use to "treat" the behavioral symptoms of dementia.

True.

26

Is it a good idea to use antipsychotics to treat dementia patients? Why or why not?

No. It is associated with earlier mortality.
Also associated with
Sedation
Increased cognitive impairment
Incontinence
Increased risk for falls
Delirium
Extrapyramidal symptoms

27

What are some treatment strategies that are healthy for patients with dementia?

Promoting quality of life
Promoting adaptive behavior
Maintenance of skills for as long as possible
Prevention of institutionalization
Prevention of excess disability
Prevention, not elimination of behavioral disturbances

28

What is elder abuse?

Elder abuse is the infliction of
-Pain
-Injury or
-Mental anguish on an older person
Deprivation of
-Food
-Shelter
-Clothing or services necessary to maintain physical or mental health

29

Is elder abuse always willful?

sometimes caregivers don't realize that they are doing it-sometimes neglect.

30

What are the categories of elder abuse? Which is not considered a crime?

Physical Abuse
Psychological Abuse
Neglect of basic needs
Self- Neglect-not a crime.
Exploitation
Isolation

31

What are signs of abuse in an elderly person?

Inadequately explained bruises, cuts or injuries
Dehydration or malnutrition
Overly medicated or extremely sedated
Unusual confinement (Closed off in a room, tied to furniture)
Lack of cleanliness, grooming
Fear of speaking for oneself in the presences of the family or caretaker; anxious to please
Anxiety, confusion, withdrawal, depression
Shame, fear, embarrassment
Sudden change in financial activity

32

Where do most cases of elder abuse happen?

95% occur in the home

33

What % of nursing homes are cited for elder abuse annually?

30%!

34

What percentage of older adults are at risk for elder abuse?

1/4

35

What is the most common form of elder abuse?

neglect (60% of the time)
then physical abuse & financial exploitation are the most common

36

At what age is an older adult under the guidelines of mandatory reporter for abuse?

60 yo or older--physician sees signs of abuse must report.

37

Who are mandated reporters?

Physicians
Dentists
Optometrists
Podiatric Physicians
Medical Examiners
Government employees
Professional or Practical RNs
Social Workers
Home Health Employees
Law Enforcement officers
Physician’s assistants
Psychiatrists/Psychologists
Marriage and Family Therapists
Ambulances drivers
EMTs
Any other person providing medical services (licensed or certified )
Employees of hospitals or Care facilities
Financial Institutions

38

IF you are not certain that elder abuse is going on, should you still report this to the EPS?

Yes. Also, they do not disclose who reported it.