Flashcards in Aging-Fisher Deck (38):
What is primary aging?
this is the normal aging process that is universal to all humans
What is secondary aging?
this is aging associated with disease, disuse, or abuse
What is tertiary aging?
these are the rapid losses that occur right before death
Explain why late life are the psychological golden years (even if not physical golden years).
More empathy and generosity
Improved reliability and organizational skills
Improved problem solving
Improved emotion regulation
Less anxiety and negative affect
What is the relationship b/w intellectual functioning & aging?
World knowledge (vocab etc) improve steadily into one's 70s.
Processing capacity activities of intellect, however, steadily decline after your 20s.
T/F Advertisers increase the amount of emotional ads when they are focused on an older demographic.
T/F As we age…emotional consequences and allocation of resources become increasingly intertwined
**this appears to be critical for healthy aging.
How do older adults (healthy ones) compensate for decreased resources (as in less physical energy)?
they are more selective with the way they spend their resources--allocate them well, emotionally.
What is the significance of older adults having a positivity bias?
they have greater contentment
more pleasure & less conflict in relationships
According to a National health survey...which age group reports the most psychological distress? Which age group reports the least?
Most psychological distress: 45-64 year olds
Least psychological distress: >65 yo
What do older couples show in their marriages that younger couples do not?
Less potential for conflict
Better negotiation skills
More potential for pleasure in several areas
Equivalent levels of mental and physical health
Fewer gender differences in sources of pleasure
More positive emotions
More empathic listening
More patience and flexibility
What is the downside to a positivity bias?
older adults may focus more on the potential benefits of health care & financial decision making rather than the downsides.
need to look at potential risks with these things.
What are some of the most important concerns of older adults?
health & well being of loved ones
avoiding living in a nursing home
Emotionally Meaningful Activity
Explain the concept of compression of morbidity.
we want longer life expectancy, but with high QOL, not debilitating chronic illnesses.
**we want to delay the onset of disability. Making the duration b/w onset of disability & death shorter.
Man has fatal first heart attack at age 50. What is his morbidity & mortality?
Spry 95-year old woman dying asymptomatically in her sleep. What is her morbidity & mortality?
T/F Regular running accelerates the aging process, due to joint injuries.
False!! It slows the effects of aging.
Elderly runners have fewer disabilities, longer life span, half as likely to die an early death.
What are some extraindividual factors that impact an older adult's health trajectory?
therapy & meds
What are some intraindividual factors that impact an older adult's health trajectory?
lifestyle & behavior changes-changes to alter disease
psychological coping-spirituality, positive affect
activity accomodations-choosing experiences that are gratifying
What is the greatest predictor of depression in older adults?
**why lifestyle changes to alter disease course is so important!!
What role does the physician play in promoting QOL?
listen, rather than assume
respect choice & autonomy-don't assume inability to consent
involve only family to help w/ consent
become informed about community resources
promote behavioral health
communicate with other providers
release medical information when appropriate
What are some causes of excess disability in early phase dementia?
metamemory-hypervigilant in monitoring performance
social interaction becomes anxiety-provoking
social withdrawal & isolation
**stigmatization by others
corrective feedback during conversation
assuming that all mistakes are due to dementia
Describe some causes of excess disability in middle & late phase dementia.
the environment becomes increasingly confusing-sensory impairments & difficulty understanding time
emergence of behavioral disturbances: aggression, disruptive vocalizations, wandering, paranoia
What are some treatment options for the cognitive symptoms of patients with dementia?
5 drugs approved that slow process, don't stop it.
they do have some side effects including: nausea, headache, dizziness
T/F There is an over-reliance on restraint use to "treat" the behavioral symptoms of dementia.
Is it a good idea to use antipsychotics to treat dementia patients? Why or why not?
No. It is associated with earlier mortality.
Also associated with
Increased cognitive impairment
Increased risk for falls
What are some treatment strategies that are healthy for patients with dementia?
Promoting quality of life
Promoting adaptive behavior
Maintenance of skills for as long as possible
Prevention of institutionalization
Prevention of excess disability
Prevention, not elimination of behavioral disturbances
What is elder abuse?
Elder abuse is the infliction of
-Mental anguish on an older person
-Clothing or services necessary to maintain physical or mental health
Is elder abuse always willful?
sometimes caregivers don't realize that they are doing it-sometimes neglect.
What are the categories of elder abuse? Which is not considered a crime?
Neglect of basic needs
Self- Neglect-not a crime.
What are signs of abuse in an elderly person?
Inadequately explained bruises, cuts or injuries
Dehydration or malnutrition
Overly medicated or extremely sedated
Unusual confinement (Closed off in a room, tied to furniture)
Lack of cleanliness, grooming
Fear of speaking for oneself in the presences of the family or caretaker; anxious to please
Anxiety, confusion, withdrawal, depression
Shame, fear, embarrassment
Sudden change in financial activity
Where do most cases of elder abuse happen?
95% occur in the home
What % of nursing homes are cited for elder abuse annually?
What percentage of older adults are at risk for elder abuse?
What is the most common form of elder abuse?
neglect (60% of the time)
then physical abuse & financial exploitation are the most common
At what age is an older adult under the guidelines of mandatory reporter for abuse?
60 yo or older--physician sees signs of abuse must report.
Who are mandated reporters?
Professional or Practical RNs
Home Health Employees
Law Enforcement officers
Marriage and Family Therapists
Any other person providing medical services (licensed or certified )
Employees of hospitals or Care facilities