Flashcards in Autonomic Review w/ Sievert Deck (17):
What are the 3 levels of autonomic control?
supraspinal: control at the level of the brainstem
Which NT are released at the synapse b/w the pre gang & post gang & b/w the post gang & target for parasympathetics?
Which NT are released at the synapse b/w the pre gang & post gang & b/w the post gang & target for sympathetics?
Postgang: NE (w/ the exception of sweat glands-ACh)
Give 2 examples of local autonomic reflexes.
1. hot compress on forearm & skin becomes red b/c of local vasodilation caused by local autonomic reflexes.
2. reflex contraction of the bladder in response to stretch
If you cut supra spinal control to the bladder-what happens? What is this called? What is the name of this type of bladder?
the bladder will contract.
autonomic dysreflexia- a local autonomic reflex
this is a segmental reflex in which the bladder is working independently
**called a neurogenic or reflex bladder
Can local reflexes ever incorporate brainstem nuclei?
Yes. The nucleus solitarius is involved in these reflexes. It then sends signals to preganglionic parasympathetic or sympathetic nerves.
Name 2 pathways that go to the cortex w/o first going into the thalamus.
2. Medial Forebrain Bundle (controls autonomics)
T/F Nucleus solitaries can send info to the parabrachial nucleus & the hypothalamus.
True. They can then ascend to the cortex.
The hypothalamus contains neurons that read bunches of different kinds of information. Including what?
body temp, levels of fatty acids and glucose, length of day, and levels of circulating hormones.
After the hypothalamus gets a bunch of info...what does it do?
it has connections to motor neurons via indirect & direct pathways & via neural & humoral pathways
What would happen if you cut the descending fiber tract from the hypothalamus and brainstem reticular formation to autonomics?
this would leave autonomic reflex loops unregulated by higher centers
you would possibly get Autonomic dysreflexia/hyper-reflexia, neurogenic bladder, hyperthermia.
Where all can the nucleus solitarius send info to? Where does it receive its information from?
Receives info from: Spinal visceral sensory neurons (CN 9 & 10)
Gives info to:
1. Preganglionic neurons in brainstem & spinal cord
2. Autonomic centers in brainstem & reticular formation
4. Parabrachial nucleus
What are the possible sources of input for the hypothalamus?
1. Nucleus Solitarius
2. Parabrachial Nucleus
3. Autonomic Centers in Brainstem & Reticular Formation
Where does the hypothalamus give output info to?
1. Autonomic Centers in Brainstem & Reticular Formation
2. Preganglionic Neurons in Brainstem & Spinal Cord
What are the 3 levels of neural control of the bladder?
2. Brainstem & Hypothalamus
3. Spinal Cord
If something is cut at the level of the spinal cord would this be an UMN syndrome or a LMN syndrome? What would happen to the bladder in this case?
retention of urine until the bladder gets too full--then spontaneous dribbling. bladder gets big & boggy.