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What is AI?

A research program in computer science that aims to create computers which display 'intelligent' behaviour


What is the best test for AI?

The Turing test


How is the mind like software?

Functionalism recognises the mind as 'neural software'. Just as the functions of computer hardware cause software to run, the functional organisation of the brain leads to consciousness.


How does functionalism support AI

Mental states are multiply realisable, so could be realised by a computer system. There is nothing, theoretically, which would prevent the construction of a machine functionally isomorphic to a human being, which would therefore be conscious


What does the computational theory of mind claim about thought?

It claims that thought, like computation, is simply symbol manipulation.


How does Fodor's language of thought hypothesis support CTM?

It suggests that thought is a structured language, and therefore consists of structured symbol manipulation.


What properties does thought possess, which structured languages also do?

Productivity and systematicity


Why wouldn't an unstructured language have systematicity?

There would not necessarily be a symbol for 'X did Y to Z' as well as 'Y did X to Z'


First problem with AI

The Chinese room argument


What is the point of the Chinese room argument?

The responses produced by the system are meaningless, because they do not possess intentionality. Intentionality cannot be derived purely from functions.


What is intentionality?

An intentional state is a mental state which is about, or directed upon, a representative mental content. For example, my belief that 'London is in England' is about London; it represents London as being in England.


What does a belief exemplify?

Russell's propositional attitude


What are the three features of a propositional attitude

Representative content, 'that' clause, and cognitive stance


What are the 2 replies to the Chinese room argument?

Systems reply and robot reply


How does Searle reply to the systems reply?

The man in the room could theoretically internalise the entire system - still couldn't derive semantics from syntax!


What problem is the robot reply responsive to ?

The problem of semantics (eg. The meaning of 'hamburger')


What does the robot reply depend on?

Semantic externalism


What is semantic externalism?

Words gain their meaning by virtue of the causal connection between the word, and the words referent


What does the robot reply concede?

Searle in a room with only written input would not be conscious, because he would lack sufficient word-world connections.


What are the other problems with AI?

Absent and Inverted qualia


Responses to Ned Block's argument

Fading and Dancing qualia