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Flashcards in Air Test Practice Deck (79):
1

Explain how the Vietnam War impacted national politics in both the elections of 1968 and 1972.

People began to distrust the government because they felt they were lying to them. The people did not want to get drafted and potentially die in a country they did not know

2

Provide me with a list of 4-6 of the main problems with the Articles of Confederation.

-Could not tax -No executive branch -No national military -No national currency -Weak central government -9 out of 13 states needed to pass laws -No judicial branch

3

Explain how and why the government’s role to protect the environment in the postwar period increased, eventually leading to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The debate on the government’s role to protect the environment in the postwar period increased during this period due to research on the effects of pesticides, pollution and waste disposal, and concerns about conservation and global warming. Demands from environmentalists led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

4

What was the main goal of the (NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization?

To create a partnership and allies to rotect Western Europe and the United States from the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact

5

Explain what a labor union is and describe its purpose and cite examples of their tactics (ways to achieve goals).

A group of workers who come together to collectively bargain to improve their situation. They collectively bargain with management and also can go on strikes

6

Explain the reasons for and the specifics of the European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan).

Marshall Plan- Spend billions of dollars to help with European countries recovery after WWII. The real reason was to help contain communism through bribery and to have economic partners.

7

List and explain the political challenges the United States faced in the post-Cold War period and following the attacks on September 11, 2001.

Changing role of the United States in global politics (e.g., preemptive wars); Issues surrounding the control of nuclear weapons;Broadening of terrorism; and Dynamic of balancing national security with civil liberties.

8

How did Americas demographics change (new races and cultures?) from the increase in immigration resulting from passage of the 1965 Immigration Act.

The 1965 Immigration Act allowed more individuals from Asia, Africa and Latin America to enter the United States. The resulting immigration impacted the country’s demographic makeup. Hispanics became the fastest growing minority in the U.S. which led to an increase in Spanish language media and funding for bilingual education programs

9

Explain why there was a population shift from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt.

The rust belt (Ohio, PA, Michigan, Illinois) began to lose factory jobs overseas and many people had to move to the Southwest for work. The employment opportunities in defense plants and high- tech industries located in the South and California led to the growth of the Sunbelt.

10

Describe challenges faced by American producers and local communities as a result of overseas competition.

Overseas competition has challenged American producers and local communities. The U.S. trade deficit has increased with the value of goods and services imported exceeding those that are exported. This has led to a decrease in manufacturing jobs and closing of plants. It also has contributed to a shift toward service industries and a growth in lower-paying jobs in fast food and sales. an American automobile might have parts imported from several countries and be assembled in yet another country.

11

Why did the United States Senate reject the Treaty of Versailles (Explain the Kellog-Brand Pact)?

We wanted to be isolationist through the Kellogg-Briand Pact to prohibit war as “an instrument of national policy.” In taking a leading role in these later treaties, the United States sought to limit its involvement in international affairs

12

Explain how American life in the postwar period was impacted by the postwar economic boom and by advances in science.

Advances in science following the war also impacted American life. Examples include: Medicine (e.g., polio vaccine, birth control pill, artificial heart valve, open-heart bypass, organ transplant, genetic engineering); Communication (e.g., transistor, television, computers, Internet, mobile phones); Nuclear energy (e.g., atomic weapons, nuclear power plants); and Transportation (e.g., passenger jet airplanes, catalytic converters in cars).

13

Explain the Palmer Raids and how they contributed to the first Red Scare after WWI.

A. Mitchell Palmer was the Attorney General of the US and was sent bombs in the mail who he thought was from commnuists/anarchists. In response, he began to deport and arrest immigrants and anyone thought to be a communist or anarchist (usually immigrants).

14

Explain why the United States wanted to be an isolationist country following WWI.

Following World War I, the United States was reluctant to become entangled in overseas conflicts that would lead to another war, we wanted to focus on fixing the Great Depression

15

What was the 18th amendment?.

Banning of the sale, transportation, and manufacture of alcohol

16

How did the United States government look to limit immigration? and explain how they believed this would help America.

The US created the Quota System limiting immigrants from countries who were not "white". Deported many people who they thought might be communists.

17

How did new waves of immigration impact culture and growth of cities?

-Northern cities grew substantially and many African-American and European cultures (language, food, religion, etc.) came with them

18

Explain the impact of WWI on the U.S. both during and after WWI.

the United States mobilized a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory. After the war, European countries were forced to concentrate their resources on rebuilding their countries. However, the United States enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity and was able to exert authority as a world power.”

19

Summarize debates surrounding the government’s role on social welfare issues

The government’s role on social welfare issues attracted intense debates, particularly relating to poverty, unemployment and national health insurance. Should we help people or should they help themselves?

20

Cite 5-7 examples of workplace abuse/unsafe working conditions confronted by labor unions at this time.

-long hours, low pay, dangerous, crowded, no workers compensation, child labor, disease, urban living

21

What is the difference between primary and secondary sources?

Primary= an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time Secondary= information that uses primary sources to inform

22

What happened as a result of the Soviet Union detonating an atomic bomb in 1949? (What did the United States do?)

Began the Second Red Scare, people began building bomb shelters, US began developing the fusion bombs and starting an arms race to have the biggest and best nukes

23

Explain the causes of the Korean War, major battles, results, and what happened to General Douglas MacArthur.

Korean War- North Korea invaded South, NATO forces led by General Douglas MacArthur flanked the North and drove them to the border of China. China attacks and drives NATO forces to the 38th parallel. Stalement ever since. Douglass MacArthur was fired for trying to nuke China.

24

Compare the structure of the government under the Articles of Confederation to the structure of the government under the Constitution. (What are the main similarities and differences)

Articles of Confederation- Strong State Gov, weak central gov, no executive branch, no judicial branch, states are basically "mini countries" Constitution- strong central gov, weaker state gov, president, executive branch, separation of powers between the three branches

25

Provide specific examples of Enlightenment ideas found in the Bill of Rights.

Enlightenment ideas -John Locke and the natural rights of life (military protection), liberty (freedom to do what one wants), and property -Rousseau- Social Contract (protection of the government from other nations, taxes being used for public goods, police, etc.) -Montesquieu- Separation of Powers to avoid the government becoming a dictatorship (tyranny) -Voltaire- Freedom of religion and thoughts

26

List and explain the national security challenges the United States faced in the post-Cold War period and following the attacks on September 11, 2001.

The attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, presented national security challenges for the country. Debates over two wars (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) that were launched in response to the September 11 attacks, the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act and the detainment and torture of enemy combatants divided the country

27

Provide the arguments for and against the use of the atomic bomb against Japan.

For- saved American lives, quickened the end of the war, scare the Soviet Union, save more Japanese lives in the long run, test new technology Against- killed 200,000 innocent civilians, radiation and environmental problems, expensive to build,

28

Explain why and how innovation created tensions in American society.

ncreased automobile ownership contributed to the growth of suburbs, the creation of new businesses (e.g., motels, gas stations) and the expansion of others (e.g., rubber, plate glass, petroleum, steel). New surfaced roads were constructed to accommodate increased traffic. But use of the automobile also challenged traditional family values and tried the patience of travelers. Young people used cars to exercise freedom from parental rules. Increased numbers of commuters had to face the problems of traffic congestion.

29

LIST 8-10 problems that industrialization caused for working class Americans.

-long hours, low pay, dangerous, crowded, no workers compensation, child labor, disease, urban living

30

Summarize the struggle for racial and gender equality and the extension of civil rights that occurred in the United States in the postwar period.

African-American organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the National Urban League (NUL) struggled for equal opportunities and to end segregation. They demonstrated through nonviolent practices and sought to change long-standing policies and laws.

31

Identify the reasons for domestic unrest and protests during the 1960s.

Civil Rights Era, Jim Crow Laws, Vietnam War, increase in poverty

32

Explain what the Cash and Carry, and Lend-Lease policies are and how they led to increased interventionism.

Cash and Carry allowed our allies to buy with cash and carry the products themselves from our ports. Lend-Lease allowed our allies to use our military equipment against our enemies

33

Explain what the Harlem Renaissance was and list 4 important people.

Harlem Renaisance- African American culture including art, music, poetry, writing, dress, and food. Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Langston Hughes, Aaron Douglas

34

What were 3 enlightenment ideas that Thomas Jefferson used in the Declaration of Independence to justify leaving England?

-John Locke and the natural rights of life (military protection), liberty (freedom to do what one wants), and property -Rousseau- Social Contract (protection of the government from other nations, taxes being used for public goods, police, etc.) -Montesquieu- Separation of Powers to avoid the government becoming a dictatorship (tyranny) -Voltaire- Freedom of religion and thoughts

35

Explain the social and political effects of the continuing population flow from cities to suburbs.

The cities became predominantly black and poor, and strongly Democratic. The suburbs were mainly white and leaned Republican. The decaying environment and the low employment opportunities in large cities contributed to urban riots in the 1960s

36

Identify and explain changes American society experienced with the mobilization of its economic and military resources during World War II.

Helped the economy, gave minorities and women jobs, increased pay for workers People had to sacrifice with food stamps, war bonds, getting drafted

37

Explain how Soviet spy cases heightened American fears during the second red scare providing specific examples.

People thought spies were giving away important nuclear and military secrets. The Rosenbergs, Alger Hiss, Klaus Fuchs were all convicted spies

38

Explain the reasons for and the impact of the Great Migration on northern cities and the African American community.

African Americans moved from the South to the North to escape the Jim Crow laws and to get jobs in Northern cities -They brought with them their culture (music, art, language, food) and helped start the Harlem Renaissance

39

Explain why the standards of living increased for most Americans following WWI.

Technological innovations in communication included commercial radio broadcasts, talking motion pictures, and wider circulation of newspapers and magazines. These innovations influenced the development of a popular culture and mass advertising.

40

What were the basic rights the colonists believed they possessed as English citizens?

natural rights and the social contract (protection of the government from other nations, taxes being used for public goods, police, etc.)

41

Why were African Americans were able to practice fewer political rights in 1900 than they were in 1870?

The Northern soldiers left following Reconstruction and Southern leaders created the Jim Crow Laws and also the KKK used violence to make sure African Americans could not vote

42

What were the causes for the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union's people were tired of the dictatorship, poverty, and innapropriate spending of the Soviet leadership and wanted change. The expensive Cold War arms race made the Soviet Union spend more money than they had and eventually collapse. Several communist governments in Eastern Europe gave up power following mass demonstrations for democracy

43

How do you check to know if a source is credible/reliable?

Check... The qualifications and reputation of the author; Agreement with other credible sources; Perspective or bias of the author (including use of stereotypes); Accuracy and internal consistency; and The circumstances in which the author prepared the source

44

What were the neutrality acts and why were they significant

Laws that made it illegal to sell anything to countries at war. We could not become involved in any conflict overseas

45

What were the main goals of the progressive movement and explain how they were influenced by industrialization

Progressives fought political corruption and introduced reforms to make the political process more democratic, Progressives introduced reforms to address the ills associated with industrial capitalism.

46

Why did America want to become an Imperial nation?

Military, economic, and political goals. They wanted new markets and prestige, an expanded navy and a sense of cultural superiority.

47

Who were muckrakers and what were they trying to accomplish?

journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. Tried to fix political corruption, problems with capitalism and robber barons, labor problems (child labor, pay, working conditions), environment, civil rights, lynchings, etc.

48

Explain how the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the USSR brought an end to the Cold War era.

The effect of these was the reduction of the tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. that characterized the Cold War period. Several communist governments in Eastern Europe gave up power following mass demonstrations for democracy

49

Provide examples of how the United States supported economic and educational reforms in former communist countries.

The U.S. supported economic and education reforms by providing assistance to some of the former communist countries by sending teachers, and a lot of money to help former communist countries

50

Explain how the efforts to combat the Great Depression led to an expanded role for the federal government.

The government created numerous New Deal programs, started to regulate private businesses and banks, and created huge public projects to give people jobs

51

Explain how the expansion in the role of the government in the 1930s and early 1940s continued to be the focus of political debates in the postwar period.

For the economy, the debates were between those who wanted bigger government to correct inequities and those who felt that the government should lessen its involvement and let the marketplace work.

52

Describe the era of unprecedented prosperity and economic growth in the United States following World War II and provide multiple specifics examples.

The United States was the only major country not devastated by WWII and we used our massive economy to rebuild the rest of the world. As a result, workers in the US received pay increases, new technology, and an increased standard of living.

53

Who were the two superpowers during the Cold War and why?

US and the Soviet Union- Only two countries with nuclear weapons and had the largest economies

54

Explain how the new media of television impacted the opinions of the American people toward Sen. McCarthy and witnesses before Congressional committees.

McCarthyism- Joseph McCarthy accused over 200 important political and military figures of being communists. This led to people being blacklisted and others fearful that communism was taking over the United States

55

Explain and list 3 New Deal programs and how they attempted to address the national difficulties of the Depression.

AAA- relief, recovery, and reform- meant to reduce overproduction and raise wages of farmers FDIC- regulate banks, provide insurance, tried to get people to trust banks again and get credit flowing CCC- massive federal program to help reduce environmental devastation from the Dust Bowl and give young people jobs

56

Explain how atomic weapons have changed the nature of war, altered the balance of power, and started the nuclear age.

The use of these bombs introduced a new type of weapon capable of mass destruction Only the US and the Soviet Union originally had these weapons, which made us the only superpowers

57

Explain why many people had a negative view towards labor unions. (think red scare) USE A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE

The Haymarket Square bombing/riot led people to believe that unions were associated with anarchists/communists. Also, the rise of the Bolsheviks (Union group) in Russia led to the First Red Scare in the United States.

58

Explain the transformation of industry and agriculture through technological innovation and invention.

Mechanized farming also transformed the American economy. Production was made more efficient as machines replaced human labor. New technologies (e.g., mechanized assembly line, electric motors) made factory production more efficient and allowed for larger industrial plants. Some of the technological innovations that transformed the American economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries include the telephone, phonograph, incandescent light bulb, washing machine, skyscraper, automobile and airplane.”

59

Provide a brief overview of the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

Korean War- North Korea invaded South, NATO forces led by General Douglas MacArthur flanked the North and drove them to the border of China. China attacks and drives NATO forces to the 38th parallel. Stalement ever since Vietnam- The Vietnam War was the longest in U.S. history until the Afghanistan War (2002-2014). The war was extremely divisive in the U.S., Europe, Australia, and elsewhere. Because the U.S. failed to achieve a military victory and the Republic of South Vietnam was ultimately taken over by North Vietnam, the Vietnam experience became known as “the only war America ever lost.” It remains a very controversial topic that continues to affect political and military decisions today.

60

Explain how the American economy has been impacted by improved global communications, international trade, transnational business organizations, overseas competition, and the shift from manufacturing to service industries.

Global communication has rapidly increased use of technologies such as the personal computer, Internet and mobile phone. America is shifting from making stuff in factories to producing technologies and ideas.

61

Explain what Nativism is..

Nativism is the belief that Native born Americans are superior to immigrants and it led to hate groups and discrimination

62

Explain the importance of debt and bank failures in contributing to the worst years of the Depression.

There was excessive amount of lending by banks. Banks began to fail, business collapsed, people lost their savings, unemployment started to skyrocket

63

Explain the impact Henry Ford and other industrialists had on work and transportation. (Discuss Urban Sprawl)

Cars allowed people to move out of the inner-city into suburbs, factories started to pay workers more, cars allowed people to travel faster and more efficiently

64

Explain what the Anti-Federalist papers were, what they were trying to do, and who was writing them.

Anti-Federalist papers explained why the Constitution was a bad idea (central power could become a dictator, states know their citizens better) and the Articles of Confederation was better. Written by Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas DeWitt.

65

Summarize how African Americans, American Indians, and women distinguished themselves in an effort to win World War II, and how these groups formed movements to secure the same freedoms and opportunities enjoyed by other Americans. LIST AND EXPLAIN THE ACRONYMS!! NOW/AIM/UFW/NAACP/SNCC

Mexican Americans organized through the United Farm Workers of America (UFW) to improve the conditions of migrant workers. American Indians organized to improve conditions on reservations, protect land rights and improve opportunities in education and employment. They formed groups such as the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) and the American Indian Movement (AIM). Women made progress toward equal opportunities through demonstrations, lawsuits and the National Organization for Women (NOW).

66

Explain how Japanese-Americans were treated during wartime.

Internment/Concentration camps- mass discrimination and racism

67

Explain which group (Anti-federalists or Federalists) wanted the Bill of Rights and explain EACH group’s reasoning.

Anti-Federalists WANTED the Bill of Rights because it protects against the federal government and provides states with more power Federalists did NOT want the Bill of Rights because they felt it was unnecessary and did not want to give up power to the states

68

Explain how the Great Migration contributed to racial violence (Nativists) in the years following WWI.

Nativists were worried that immigrants/African americans were going to compete for their jobs and change their ways of life, which led to riots and discrimination/violence

69

Explain how the meeting and ultimate treaty produced at the meeting in Versailles set the stage for WWII

War Guilt Clause and the Treaty of Versailles led to resentment from Germany and the rise of Hitler. International Bodies (League of Nations) were very weak and there was appeasement from European countries.

70

What were the reasons for U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

Usually it refers to the period when the United States and other members of the SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) joined the forces with the Republic of South Vietnam to contest communist forces, comprised of South Vietnamese guerrillas and regular-force units, generally known as Viet Cong (VC), and the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). The U.S., possessing the largest foreign military presence, essentially directed the war from 1965 to 1968. For this reason, in Vietnam today it is known as the American War. It was a direct result of the First Indochina War (1946–1954) between France, which claimed Vietnam as a colony, and the communist forces then known as Viet Minh. In 1973 a “third” Vietnam war began—a continuation, actually—between North and South Vietnam but without significant U.S. involvement. It ended with communist victory in April 1975.

71

What does the Northwest Ordinance provide for the United States? (3 things)

-Slavery excluded in the North -Temporary Government -Way for the United States to add new states -All states are equal

72

List and explain specific southern responses to Reconstruction efforts by the federal government.

Jim Crow Laws and etiquette, voting discrimination (poll taxes, literacy tests), KKK intimidation, lynchings

73

Explain what the Federalist papers were, what they were trying to do, and who was writing them.

Federalist papers were written to convince people why the Constitution was needed (need for national taxation, the benefits of a strong national defense, the safeguards in the distribution of powers and the protection of citizen rights). It was written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.

74

Explain 2 examples of American imperialism, .

Spanish American War, Hawaii, Panama Canal, and Filipino-American war- new territories, military bases, and economic markets to sell to

75

Explain how civilians helped the war effort (even though they weren’t involved in any combat.

Scrap drives were conducted to reallocate materials for war goods. Regulations were imposed on some wages and prices. Some products were subjected to rationing. Citizens raised victory gardens to supplement food supplies and purchased war bonds to help fund the war. Some labor unions signed no-strike pledges.

76

Explain the policy of containment (how did we do it) and the reasons for its establishment by the United States during the Cold War in response to the spread of communism.

The US wanted to ensure that communism would not spread to the rest of the world and we fought this by having proxy wars (Korea, Vietnam), and spending a lot of money (Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine) to rebuild Europe and bribe them.

77

Explain what impact the Great Migration had on cities after WWI both positive and negative (Harlem Renaissance)

Harlem Renaisance- African American culture including art, music, poetry, writing, dress, and food. Increased racial tensions,

78

Explain what industrialization is and how the advantages in factors of production enabled rapid U.S. industrialization.

Industrialization is the rise of corporations and heavy industry, which transformed the American economy. New technologies (e.g., mechanized assembly line, electric motors) made factory production more efficient and allowed for larger industrial plants. Some of the technological innovations that transformed the American economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries include the telephone, phonograph, incandescent light bulb, washing machine, skyscraper, automobile and airplane.”

79

—Explain what the Second Red Scare was and provide specific examples of why people were scared.

Second Red Scare- 1940s and early 1950s, hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the U.S. became known as the Red Scare. Spies, nuclear arms race, Cuban Missile Crisis, McCarthyism, etc.