Airway and Respiratory Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Airway and Respiratory Emergencies Deck (68)
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1

How does a pt look with respiratory failure?

Hypoxemia and hypercarbia
Respiratory exhaustion
Use of accessory muscles
Retractions

2

What does 4 min signify with complete obstruction?

From the time of complete obstruction to onset of brain damage (FRC has 21% oxygen)

3

Most common cause of airway obstruction

Tongue

4

Progression of airway obstruction

Partial will often go to complete if not cleared
Complete with progress to respiratory arrest if not cleared

5

How does a pt look with complete airway obstruction?

Chest will move in "rocking motion" with abdomen going in opposite direction

6

Who must perform the most invasive airway management?

Most experienced practitioner

7

Types of airways

Oral
Nasal
Laryngeal mask airway

8

Presentation of foreign body aspiration in a toddler

Persistent cough and unilateral wheezing if gone down 1 bronchi
No URI sxs
Decreased breath sounds
Post-obstructive atelectasis, pneumonia

9

Location of foreign bodies

Larynx
Tracheal/ carina
Right lung (MOST- most here is main bronchus)
Left lung (second most common)
Bilateral

10

What is important to remember with intubation and facial burns?

Intubate early with facial or large scale burns because if you wait too long the trachea will close and can't intubate

11

Types of Le Forte fractures

I- maxilla is disconnected b/c fracture goes straight across and upper teeth are loose
II- through cheek bones and under the orbits
III- fractures through the orbits

12

What fractures are likely to have cribriform fractures?

LeForte II and III

13

What MUST you remember with LeForte II and III?

No nasal airways!!! (b/c possible cribriform)

14

What is seen on a pt with a basilar skull fracture?

Battle's sign (bruising of mastoid- mid skull fracture)
Raccoon eyes (frontal fracture)
CSF from nose and/or ears

15

Pathophysiology of anaphylaxis

Antigen-antibody binds to mast cells
IgE-mediated histamine release
Increased vascular permeability, vasodilation
Bronchial constriction
Increased mucous gland secretion

16

Common causes of anaphylaxis

Abx
ASA and NSAIDs
Shellfish, nuts, eggs, milk
Hymenopytera (bee) stings, grasses

17

Presentation of anaphylaxis

Onset in seconds to hours
Angioedema
Tightening sensation in throat and chest
Laryngeal swelling and bronchial spasm, hoarseness, stridor, wheezing (BILATERAL)
Respiratory distress and apnea

18

Tx for anaphylaxis

Airway management and O2
Epi if severe hypotension (IV .3-.5 mg of 1:10,000 or SC .3-.5 mg of 1:1,000)
Antihistamines (H1 like diphenhydramine or H2 like cimetidine)

19

What can also be considered in some anaphylaxis cases?

Beta 2 agonists (albuterol)
Steroids
Endotracheal intubation
Surgical airway
IV bolus if hypotensive

20

What is angioedema?

Eruption similar to urticaria but with larger edematous areas that involve dermis and subQ structures
Frequently head and neck
Onset in minutes to hours and resolves in hours to days

21

2 types of angioedema

Hereditary- insufficient synthesis of C1-esterase inhibitor (rare and autosomal dominant)
Acquired (ACE-i)

22

Tx for angioedema

Airway and support
Plasma conc of C1 esterase inhibitor if hereditary
Epi, antihistamines, steroids
Danazol to increase synthesis of C1 esterase inhibitor
Ecallantide (kallikrein inhibitor)
Icatibant (bradykinin receptor antagonist)

23

What does C1 esterase inhibitor usually do?

Prevent the build up of bradykinin

24

What is ludwig's angina?

Bilateral, rapidly spreading submandibular cellulitis
Usually originating from 2nd or 3rd molars

25

Sxs of ludwig's angina

Tongue elevated
Hard, firm induration of floor of the mouth
Perioral edema
Pain
Trismus
Mediastinitis

26

Tx for ludwig's angina

Must be surgery
Awake fiberoptic nasal intubation
Sometimes awake tracheostomy

27

What is the retropharyngeal abscess?

Localized collection of pus in the retropharyngeal space (rare)

28

Causes of a retropharyngeal abscess

Mixed gram - and anaerobic bacteria
Tonsillitis
Otitis media
Pharyngeal trauma
Odynophagia

29

Sxs of a retropharyngeal abscess

Fever, odynophagia (classic!), neck swelling, drooling, torticollis, meningismus, cervical LAD, stridor, airway obstruction

30

Ways to diagnose retropharyngeal abscess

Clinical
Soft tissue lateral neck x-rays (gas, mass)
CT neck