Flashcards in Alcohols Deck (16):
What is the general formula for an alcohol?
What is the equation for fermentation?
C6H12O6 ----> (yeast) 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
What are the conditions required for fermentation?
No oxygen present, yeast and warmth (not higher than 37 degrees Celsius).
Advantages for the hydration of ethene?
It's fast, pure ethanol produced and it's a continuous process.
Advantages for the fermentation of glucose?
Low temperatures, renewable, simple equipment.
Disadvantages for the hydration of ethene?
High energy process. Expensive plant required. Uses non-renewable fossil fuels.
Disadvantages for the fermentation of glucose?
Slow, CO2 emissions, impure ethanol, batch process.
Write the equation for the combustion of ethanol?
C2H5OH + 3O2 ----> 2CO2 + 3H2O
What colour dies acidified potassium dichromate turn during the oxidation of an alcohol?
It changes from orange to green.
What happens when a primary alcohol is heated with acidified potassium chromate?
A aldehyde and water is produced.
What happens when a primary alcohol is heated strongly with excess acidified potassium chromate and refluxed?
The alcohol will be completely oxidised forming a carboxylic acid.
What happens when a secondary alcohol is heated with acidified potassium chromate?
A ketone is produced and water is produced.
What happens when a tertiary alcohol is heated with acidified potassium chromate?
Tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation, therefore the oxidising agent remains orange.
What is esterification?
Esterification is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water. Concentrated sulfuric acid is often used as a catalyst.
What is dehydration?
Dehydration is an elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.