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Chemistry (F322) > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (28):
1

What is a hydrocarbon?

A hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contain carbon and hydrogen only.

2

What is a saturated hydrocarbon?

A saturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with single bonds only.

3

What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?

A unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon containing carbon to carbon multiple bonds.

4

What is an aliphatic hydrocarbon?

A aliphatic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.

5

What is an alicyclic hydrocarbon?

A alicyclic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.

6

What is a functional group?

A functional group is the part of the organic molecule that is responsible for its chemical properties.

7

What is a homologous series?

A homologous series is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.

8

What is nomenclature?

Nomenclature is a system of naming compounds.

9

What is an alkyl group?

An alkyl group is an alkane with a hydrogen atom removed.

10

What is a general formula?

A general formula is the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series.

11

What does displayed formula show?

Displayed formula shows the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.

12

What does structural formula show?

Structural formula shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.

13

What does skeletal formula show?

Skeletal formula is simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.

14

What are structural isomers?

Structural isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms.

15

What are stereoisomers?

Stereoisomers are compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of atoms in the space.

16

What is homolytic fission?

Homolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals.

17

What is a radical?

A radical is a species with an unpaired electron.

18

What is heterolytic fission?

Hetrolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion.

19

What is a nucleophile?

A nucleophile is an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

20

What is a electrophile?

A electrophile is an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron rich atom or centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

21

What is fractional distillation?

Fractional distillation is the separation of the components in a liquid mixture, into fractions which differ with boiling points, by means of distillation.

22

What is cracking?

Cracking is the breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes and alkenes.

23

What is a catalyst?

A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process.

24

What is the standard change of reaction?

The standard change of reaction is the enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.

25

What is the standard enthalpy change of combustion?

The standard enthalpy change of combustion is the enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditions, all reactants and products being in their standard states.

26

What is the standard enthalpy change of formation?

The standard enthalpy change of formation is the enthalpy change the takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions.

27

What is atom economy?

(Molecular mass of desired product / Molecular mass of all products) x 100

28

What is average bond enthalpy?

Average bond enthalpy is the average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species.