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1

Grignard + CO2

Forms carboxylic acid

2

Grignard + aldehyde

Produces secondary alcohol and tertiary alcohols with ketones

3

Grignard + methanal

Produces primary alcohol

4

How to form grignard reagant

Halogenoalkane is dissolved in dry ether and reacted with magnesium

5

Zwitterion in acidic solution

H3N+ and CO2H

6

Zwitterion in alkaline solution

H2N and CO2-

7

Amine + acid

= ammonium salt

8

Amide functional group?

Double Bond to O
NH2

9

Define rate of reaction

Change in concentration of a substance in unit time

10

Nitration of benzene

HNO3 + 2H2SO4 ->. NO2+ + 2HSO4- + H3O+

11

Acyl chloride + amine

Secondary amide

12

Acyl chloride + NH3

Primary amide + NH4Cl

13

Acyl chloride + alcohol

Ester + HCl

14

Acyl chloride + H2O

Carboxylic acid + HCl

15

Acid + metal

Salt and hydrogen

16

Acid + alkali

Salt and water

17

Acid + carbonate

Salt and water and co2

18

Define nucleophile

Electron pair donator

19

Define electrophile

An electron pair acceptor

20

Formation of pi bond

Formed by sideways overlap of two p orbitals on each carbon atom.
Pi Bond weaker than sigma bond

21

Formation of sigma bond

One sp2 orbital from each carbon overlap to form a single c-c bond
Rotation can occur around sigma bond

22

Carbonyl + I2 + NaOH

Yellow crystalline ppt and antiseptic smell

23

Test for acyl chloride

AgNO3, steamy fumes of HCl and white ppt of AgCl

24

Test for chloroalkane

Warm AgNO3, white ppt of AgCl

25

Test for primary secondary alcohols

Na2Cr2O7/H2SO4

Orange to green

26

Test for carboxylic

NaCO3 effervescence is CO2

27

Test for aldehyde

Tollens silver mirror, feelings shows blue solution to brick red ppt

28

Test for carbonyls

2,4-DNP, orange ppt

29

Test for alcohols, phenols and carboxylic

Sodium metal, effervescence (H2 gas)

30

Test for alcohol and carboxylic acid

PCl5, misty fumes of HCl