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Flashcards in all herbs Deck (402):
1

! baptisia tinctoria

anorexia
hypersalivation
tachypnea
tachycardia
respiratory
paralysis
death

2

! , <> cineraria martima

contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids

! nausea, hepato veno occlusive dz, hepatic failure, death

<> synergist with hepatotoxic drugs

3

! achillea millefolium

contains thujone: emmenagogue, abortifacient, convulsions

4

! aconitum napellus

narrow therapeutic window
OD similar to parasympatholytics

5

! actea racemosa

nausea
OD: sedative, bradycardia, hypotension

6

! allium cepa / sativum

increased bleeding time
may worsen colicky baby through breast milk

7

! aloe vera latex, rhamnus purshiana, Ricinus communis (internal), Rumex crispus

GI cramping
red feces
pseudomelanosis coli
diarrhea

8

! artemisia absinthum

thujone: emmenagogue, abortifacient, convulsions

vomiting, impotence, disturbed sleep, convulsion, death

9

! artemisia vulgaris

thujone: emmenagogue, abortifacient, convulsions

10

! astragalus membranaceus

may increase fibrin formation

11

! atropa belladonna

"hot as a hare, red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter"

12

! bacopa monierri

palpitations
nausea
dry mouth
thirst and fatigue

13

! berberis aquifolium

dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation
late pregnancy

14

! berberis vulgaris and berberis aquifolium

nausea
vomiting
mucous membrane
irritation
hypotension
heart failure
convulsions
parathesias

15

! camellia sinensis

potentially hepatotoxic

16

! ceanothus americanus

may increase clotting

17

! centella asiatic

HTN
hematochezia
pruritus
photosensitivity

18

! chelidonium majus

nausea
vomiting
burning in mouth
abdominal pain
diarrhea
stupor
coma
death

19

! cinnamomum zelyanicum

OD of essential oil: nausea, vomiting, convulsions, pulmonary edema, liver damage, kidney damage, coma

20

! coleus forskohlii

GI stimulation
nausea

21

! convallaria majalis

yellow/green halo around objects
bradycardia
death

22

! datura stramonium

hot as a hare, red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter

23

! digitalis purpurea

yellow/green halo around objects
bradycardia
death

24

! ephedra sinica

mild agitation, increased alertness, myocardial infarct

OD: sympathomimetic (nausea, vomitting, vertigo, diaphoresis, tremor, headache, agitation, tachycardia, palpitaions,seizure, death)

25

! equisteum arvense

long term use depletes B1

26

! fucus vesiculosus

decreased absorption of K, Fe, Na
abrnomal CBC
diarrhea
heavy metal poisoning

27

! glycyrrhiza glabra

pseudoaldosteronism
reduces thyroid activity

28

! grindelia robusta

hypermagnesemia
hyperselenemia
bradycardia

29

! hydrastis canadensis

nausea
dysbiosis
berberine displaces bilirubin from albumin
bradycardia
spasms
paralysis
delirium

30

! hyoscyamus niger

hot as a hare, red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter

31

! hypericum perforatum

photosensitive rash
elevated liver enzymes

32

! juglans nigras

nausea
carcinogenic
mutagenic

33

! juniperus communis

thujone: emmenagogue, abortifacient, convulsions

34

! larrea tridentata

n/v
anorexia
jaundice
hepatotoxicity

35

! lobelia inflata

n/v to death

36

! melaleuca alternifolia

neurotoxic if ingested

37

! panax ginseng

ginseng abuse syndrome (euphoria, diarrhea, nervousness, insomnia, HTN, skin eruptions)
mastalgia
post-menopausal bleeding

38

! passiflora incarnata

CNS depressions
cardiac depression
respiratory depression

39

! pausinystalia yohimbe

cardiac, respiratory paralysis

40

- , <> gentian lutea

- dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation

<> antagonistic effect with PPI
<> bitter: decrease drug absorption

41

- , <> leptandra virginica

- dzs common to bitter digestive stimulation

<> antagonistic effect with PPI, doxycylcine
<> reduces B vitamin absorption
<> antatgonizes podophyllum<> bitter: decrease drug absorption

42

- , ! , <> eupatorium perfoliatum

contains unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids, see commonalities.

! nausea, hepato veno occlusive dz, hepatic failure, death

<> synergist with hepatotoxic drugs

43

- , ! , <> eupatorium purpureum

contains unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids, see commonalities.

! nausea, hepato veno occlusive dz, hepatic failure, death

<> synergist with hepatotoxic drugs

44

- , ! , <> gymnema sylvestre

- GERD

! aggravates reflux

<> decrease insulin requirement, potentiate hypoglycemic drugs, potentiate atorvastatin

45

- , ! aesculus hippocastanum

- high doses

! nausea, unprocessed fruit toxic
! IM injection: hepatitis, renal failure

46

- , ! lomatium dissectum

- pregnancy
- concurrent UV therapy

! whole body rash

47

- achillea millefolium

dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulationlarge doses, pregnancy

48

- aconitum napellus

pregnancy
lactation
high doses

49

- actea racemosa

1st trimester
lactation
estrogen dependent tumors

50

- allium cepa / sativum

bleeding d/o
anticoagulant therapy
thyroid dz

51

- aloe vera latex, rhamnus purshiana, Ricinus communis (internal), Rumex crispus

> 10 day use
intestinal obstruction
unknown abdominal pain
bulimia
pregnant
lactating

52

- althaea officinalis

wet cough

53

- angelica sinesis

menorrhagia
bleeding diathesis

54

- arnica montana

internal use

! gastroenteritis, headache, altered heart rate, HTN, dyspnea, cardiovascular collapse, coma, death

55

- artemisia absinthum

dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation
large doses
pregnancy lactation

56

- artemisia annua

pregnancy
lactation

57

- artemisia vulgaris

dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation
pregnancy
lactation

58

- articum lappa

pregnancy at high doses
dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation

59

- aspidosperma quebracho

dry cough
pregnancy
lactation
infants
long term use

60

- astragalus membranaceus

may exacerbate alzheimers disease and acute infections

61

- atropa belladona

long term use or high dose
BPH
urinary retention
prostate cancer
tachycardia
arrhytmia
closed angle glaucoma
acute pulmonary edema
GI stenosis
megacolon
pregnancy
lactation
children

62

- baptisia tinctoria

long term use
high dose
pregnancy
lactation

63

- berberis vulgaris

dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation
hyperbilirubinemia
kidney disease
acute hepatitis
cirrhosis
liver cancer
pregnancy
lactation

64

- bryonia alba

internal use
pregnancy
lactation

65

- camellia sinensis

children
beri beri
CVD
kidney disease
duodenal ulcer
psychological d/o
pregnancy

66

- capsella bursa-pastoris

major bleed
pregnancy

67

- caulophylum thalictroides

early pregnancy

! 2 cases of fetal harm

68

- chamaleirium luteum

early pregnancy
GI irritation

69

- chelidonium majus

common cholagogue CI( biliary obstruction, hepatic failure, acute diarrhea, acute cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, unconjugated hyper bilirubinemia)
pregnancy
lactation
children

70

- chionanthus virginicus

common cholagogue CI( biliary obstruction, hepatic failure, acute diarrhea, acute cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, unconjugated hyper bilirubinemia)

71

- cineraria maritima

internal use
over broken skin
pregnancy
lactation

72

- cinnamomum zelyanicum

GERD
gastritis
biliary obstruction
acute cholelithiasis
high doses of essential oil during pregnancy

73

- coleus forskohlii

PUD
pregnancy
lactation
children

74

- commiphora mukul

IBD
pregnancy
lactation
coagulation D/O

75

- commiphora myrrha

high doses in pregnancy

76

- convallaria majalis

hypokalemia
hypomagnesemia
hypocalcemia
hypercalcemia
ventricular arrhythmia
kidney failure
severe carditis
pregnancy
lactation

77

- corydalis spp

pregnancy
lactation

78

- curcuma longa

biliary obstruction
acute cholelithiasis
hyperchlorhydria
pregnancy

79

- cynara scolymus

dz's affected by bitter digestive stimulation

80

- datura stramonium

same as atropa belladonna, hysocamus niger

BPH
urinary retention
prostate cancer
tachycardia
arrhytmia
closed angle glaucoma
acute
pulmonary edema
GI stenosis
megacolon
pregnancy
lactation
children

81

- digitalis purpurea

hypokalemia
hypomagnesemia
hypocalcemia
hypercalcemia
ventricular arrhythmia
kidney failure
severe carditis
pregnancy
lactation

82

- dioscorea villosa

biliary obstruction
cholecystitis
biliary cancer
pancreatic cancer
hepatitis
cirrhoiss

83

- eleutherococcus senticosus

long term use
acute infections
HTN

84

- ephedra sinica

HTN
hyperthyroidism
BPH
glaucoma
CAD
anorexia
pregnancy
lactation

85

- equisteum arvense

HTN
hypokalemia
coagulation D/O

86

- foeniculum vulgare

pregnancy
biliary obstruction
GERD

87

- fucus vesiculosus

hyperthyroidism
pregnancylactation
long term consumption of iodine

88

- ganoderma lucidum

mold sensitivity
organ transplant

89

- gingko biloba

bleeding diathesis
hx of hemorrhagic stroke

90

- harpagophytum procumbens

dz's common to bitter digestive stimulation

91

- humulus lupulus

dz's common to bitter digestive stimulation

92

- hydrastis canadensis

dz's common to bitter digestive stimulation

93

- hyoscyamus niger

long term use or high dose
BPHurinary retention
prostate cancer
tachycardia
arrhytmia
closed angle glaucoma
acute pulmonary edema
GI stenosis
megacolon
pregnancy
lactation
children

94

- hypericum perforatum

SI
high doses in pregnancy

95

- iris versicolor

GERD
PUD
gastritis
biliary obstruction
acute cholelithiasis
diarrhea
acute hepatitis
acute cholecystitis
pregnancy
lactation

96

- juniperus communis

dz's common to digestive bitter stimulation

97

- larrea tridentata

liver dz
topically on broken skin
pregnancy
lactation

98

- lobelia inflata

cardiac hypertrophy
heart block
weak constitution
pregnancy
lactation
infants

99

- lycopus virginicus

infertility
pregnancy
lactation
children
euthyroid
hypothyroid

100

- medicago sativa

high doses in pregnancy
lactation

101

- melissa officinalis

GERD
hypothyroidism

102

- mentha piperita

hiatal hernia
GERD
G6PD
pregnancy
cholelithiasis

103

- mitchella repens

early pregnancy

104

- momordica charantia

pregnancy

105

- olea europa

hyper active gut
large gall stones

106

- panax ginseng

HTN
pregnancy
mental health (anxiety / depression)
hemorrhage
psoriasis

107

- passiflora incarnata

pregnancy

108

- pausinystalia yohimbe

schizophrenia
PTSD
panic attacks
CAD
angina
HTN
pregnancy
lactation

109

-, !, <> arctostaphylos uva ursi

- pregnancy, use > 10 days

! nausea, chronic use may be carcinogenic
! OD: tinnitus, vomiting, delirium, convulsion, death

<> vitamin C + cranberry acidify urine

110

<> achillea millefolium

antagonist effect with PPI
bitter: decrease drug absorption

111

<> actea racemosa

HRT therapy leading to estrogen excess
decrease hot flushes with tamoxifen

112

<> allium cepa / sativum

potentiate warfarin
potentiate insulin and hypoglycemic drugs

113

allium cepa / sativum indications

atherosclerosis
hypercoagulative states
dyslipidemia

114

<> aloe vera gel

additive hypoglycemic effect with glyburide
polysac. effect: reduce absorption of drugs

115

<> aloe vera latex, rhamnus purshiana, Ricinus communis (internal), Rumex crispus

avoid hypokalemic drugs
*diuretics
*corticosteroids
*cardiac glycosides
*anti arrhytmics
*pseudoephedrine
*glycyrrhiza

reduce absorption of drugs due to increased transit time

116

<> althaea officinalis

polysac. effect: reduce absorption of drugs

117

<> angelica sinesis

potentiates warfarin

118

<> artemisia absinthum

antagonist effect with PPI
bitter: decreased drug absorption

119

artemisia absinthum indications

poor digestion, roundworms

120

artemisia annua indication

malaria

121

<> artemisia vulgaris

antagonistic with PPI
potentiate hypoglycemic drugs
BItter: decrease drug absorption

122

artemisia vulgaris indications

poor digestion
depressiona
menorrhea
optimize by combining with Iron

123

<> articum lappa

antagonist effect with PPI
additive hypoglycemic effect with insulin
bitter: decreased drug absorption

124

articum lappa actions

alterative, bitter, hepatoprotective

125

<> asclepias tuberosa

cardiac glycosides
*digoxin
*convallaria
*digitalis
*leonurus

126

aspidosperma quebracho indications

dyspnea
wet cough

127

<> astragalus membranaceus

potentiates acyclovir
potentiates IFN 1 and 2
antagonize corticosteroids
polysac.effect: decrease absorption of drugs

128

astragalus membranaceus indications

depressed immune system
infection
viral cardiomyopathy
pharyngitis
tonsillitis
cancer
male infertility

129

<> atropa belladona

potentiates anticholinergic drugs
*atropine
*bupropion
*dextromethorphan
*dicyclomine
*diphenhydramine
*tiotropium bromide
*tolterodine
*TCA (amitryptyline)
*amantadine

130

avena sativa actions

generally safe

nervine, anxiolytic, hypolipidemic, nutritive

131

<> bacopa monierri

CYP450 induction

potentiate Ca blockers
Potentiate sedatives
potentiate barbituates
Potentiate benzodiazepines
potentiate opiates
potentiate trazodone
potentiate zolpidem

132

bacopa monierri indications

cognition
poor memory
anxiety

133

baptisia tinctoria indications

upper respiratory infections
pharyngitis
tonsilitis
mastitis
delirium with fever
chronic fatigue

134

<> berberis aquifolium

antagonist effect with PPI
bitter: decrease drug absorption
may cause intestinal or vaginal dysbiosis

135

berberis aquifolium indications

poor digestion
chronic skin disease

136

<> berberis vulgaris

antagonistic effect on PPI
potentiates barbituates
bitter: decrease drug absorption

137

berberis vulgaris indications

poor digestion
chronic hepatitis
liver disease
gall stones

138

<> boswellia serrata

enhances NSAIDS

139

boswellia serrata indications

inflammatory conditions
asthma
crohn's
UC
OA
RA
Chronic prostatitis

140

<> bryonia alba

GI sxs
hypothermia
bronchial irritation
mydriasis
headache
tachycardia
paralysis
death

141

bryonia alba indications

used topically for pain
rheumatism
PUD

142

calendula officinalis actions

generally safe

vulnerary

143

camellia sinensis indications

asthma
cancer prevention
infection
cavity prevention
weight loss
memory enhancement
stimulant

144

<> camellia sinesis

many interactions, high likelihood that it would not be indicated if pharmaceutical is being used
reduce iron absorption

145

<> cannabis sativum

potentiates opiates
potentiates barbituates

146

<> capsella bursa-pastoris

potentiate anticoagulants

147

capsella bursa-pastoris indications

styptic
mild menorrhagia
metrorrhagia
post partum
hemorrhage
hemorrhoids

148

<> capsicum frutescens

anticoagulants
inhibits CYP450
may aggravate cough from ACEi

149

capsicum frutesecens indications

internal:
*hypochlorhydria
*h pylori
*maldigestion
*dyspepsia
* biliary insufficiency
*atherosclerosis
*hypercoagulation
*capillary atony

external
*diabetic neuropathy
*pruritis
*psoriasis
*OA
*RA

150

<> cassia spp

avoid hypokalemic drugs
*diuretics
*corticosteroids
*cardiac glycosides
*anti arrhytmics
*pseudoephedrine
*glycyrrhiza

151

cassia spp special time of use different from most cathartics

may be used while lactating

152

<> caulophylum thalictroides

interferes with angina treatment (nitroglycerin)

153

caulophylum thalictroides actions

"blue cohosh"

uterine tonic

154

<> ceanothus americanus

antagonize warfarin

155

ceanothus americanus actions

splenoprotective
hepatoprotective
lymphatic
alterative

156

centella asiatic indications

insomnia
dementia
poor memory
chronic venous insufficiency

157

<> chamaleirium luteum

may potentiate anticoagulants

158

Chamaleirium luteum actions

uterine tonic

159

Chelidonium majus actions / indications

alterative, bitter, cholagogue

topical:
*warts
*eczema
*corns

internal:
*prevent gallstones
*biliary insufficiency
*whooping cough

160

Chionanthus virginicus actions / indications

cholagogue, alterative, bitter

liver gallbladder dysfunction
jaundice
hepatomegaly
biliary insufficiency
gall stones
chronic skin conditions
constipation
dyspepsia
typhoid fever
malaria

161

cineraria maritima actions / indications

anti-cataract

topical applications for cataracts

162

<> cinnamomum zelyanicum

essential oil may deplete glutathione
tannins may reduce drug absorption

163

cinnamomum zelyanicum actions / indications

astringent, carminative

internal: hemorrhage, dyspepsia

164

<> coleus forskohlii

potentiates cardiac glycosides
potentiates warfarin
potentiates insulin and hypoglycemic drugs
potentiates antihistamines
potentiates levothyroxine

increases bleed with NSAIDs

antagonizes PPIs

165

coleus forskohlii actions and indications

adenylate cyclase activator, vasodilator

asthma
dilated
cardiomyopathy
HTN

166

<> commiphora mukul

induce CYP450
may decrease bioavailability of propranolol, diltiazem

167

commiphora mukul actions / indications

hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory

hyperlipidemia
elevated LDL
inflammation
OA

168

<> commiphora myrrha

potentiates insulin and hypoglycemic drugs

169

commiphora myrrha actions / indcations

antimicrobial, antitussive

excess mucous
infections
vaginitis
gastroenteritis
dypsepsia
infection

170

<> convallaria majalis

avoid hypokalemic drugs
*diuretics
*corticosteroids
*cardiac glycosides
*anti arrhytmics
*pseudoephedrine
*glycyrrhiza

potentiates beta-blockers

171

convallaria majalis indications

CHF
atrial arrhythmias
hypotension

172

<> cordyceps sinensis

potentiates epinephrine

173

cordyceps sinensis indications / actions

bronchodilator, anti cancer

acute infection
anemia
protects bone marrow

174

<> corydalis spp

similar effect as Ca-channel blockers

175

corydalis spp actions / indications

strong analgesic, sedative

pain management
protects against NSAID ulcers
angina
arrhytmias

176

<> crataegus oxycantha

may cause HTN with beta-blocker
tannins: may reduce drug absorption

177

cratageus oxycantha actions / indications

cardiotonic
CHF
arrhytmias
cardiac weakness
capillary fragility
mild HTN

178

<> curcuma longa

may potentiate warfarin

179

curucma longa actions / indications

anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, cholagogue, hepatoprotective

cancer
OA
RA
inflammation
protection of NSAIDs induced ulcers

180

<> cynara scolymus

antagonistic effect with PPI
bitter: decrease drug absorption

181

cynara scolymus actions / indications

bitter, hypolipidemic

dyslipidemia
poor digestion

182

<> datura stramonium

potentiates anticholinergic drugs
*atropine
*bupropion
*dextromethorphan
*dicyclomine
*diphenhydramine
*tiotropium bromide
*tolterodine
*TCA (amitryptyline)
*amantadine

183

datura stramonium actions / indications

spasmolytic (antimuscarinic)

acute asthma
smooth muscle spasm
whopping cough
pertussis

184

digitalis purpura actions / indications

cardiac stimulant, + inotropic, negative chronotropic

CHF
atrial arrhytmias

185

<> digitalis purpurea

avoid hypokalemic drugs
*diuretics
*corticosteroids
*cardiac glycosides
*anti arrhytmics
*pseudoephedrine
*glycyrrhiza

potentiates beta-blockers

186

dioscorea villosa actions / indications

spasmolytic

dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, PMS, threatened miscarriage

187

<> echinacea spp

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

188

echinacea spp actions / indications

immune stimulant

influenza
upper respiratory tract infection
pharyngitis
tonsillitis
skin infections

189

<> eleutherococcus senticosus

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

190

eleutherococcus senticosus actions / indications

adaptogen

pharyngitis
tonsillitis
infection
cancer
chronic inflammation
hyppadrenocorticism

191

<> ephedra sinica

potentiates sympathomimetics
*albuterol
*epinephrine
*phelephrine
*pseduoephedrine
*salbutamol
*caffeine
*dextroamphetamine
*methylphenidate
*MAOi's

antagonizes
*alpha and beta blockers,
*TCAs

increases clearance of desxamethasone

192

ephedra sinica action / indications

adnergic agonist, bronchodilator

bronchitis
asthma
COPD
urinary incontinence

193

<> equisteum arvense

avoid hypokalemic drugs
*diuretics
*corticosteroids
*cardiac glycosides
*anti arrhytmics
*pseudoephedrine
*glycyrrhiza

may antagonize warfarin

194

equisteum arvense actions indications

aquaretic, astringent

urolithiasis, edema

195

eschscholzia californica actions / indications

nervine, hypnotic, anodyne

nerve related pain
insomnia

196

<> eschzscholzia californica

may potentiate MAOi, SSRIs

197

eucalyptus globulus actions / indications

antimicrobial , counter irritant

internal: upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, tonsillitis

198

eupatorium perfoliatum actions / indications

diaphoretic

pain from cough, fever

199

Eupatorium purpureum actions / indications

anti-lithic

urolithiasis

200

euphrasia officinalis actions / indications

anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic

opthalmias, allergic rhinitis / conjunctivitis

201

foeniculum vulgare actions / indicaitons

carminative, galactagogue, phytoestrogen

infant colic
insufficient lactation
hypo/hyper- estrogen states

202

<> fucus vesiculosus

levothyroxine
may potentiate amiodarone, lithium

203

Fucus vesiculosus indications

hypothyroidsm
goiter
rheumatism
RA
obesity

204

galium aparine actions /indications

aquaretic

nodular growths
lymphadenitis
lower UTI
urolithiasis

205

<> ganoderma lucidum

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

potentiates
*barbituates
*anticoagulants
*atorvastatin

206

ganoderma lucidum actions / indications

adaptogen

insomnia
allergies
bronchial
asthma
liver disease
chronic immune deficiency

207

<> gelsemium sempervirens

may potentiate aspirin

208

gelsemium sempervirens actions /indciations

anodyne, parturifacient

ovarian cyst pain
induction of labour
insomnia
nervous unrest

209

gentian lutea actions / indications

bitter, cholagogue

poor digestion

210

geranium maculatum actions / indications

styptic, venotonic

hemorrhage
varicose veins
diarrhea

211

<> geranium maculatum

tannins: may reduce drug absorption

212

<> gingko biloba

potentiate anticoagulants

213

gingko biloba actions / indicators

vasodilator

intermittant claudication
cerebrovascular insufficiency

214

<> glycyrrhiza glabra

avoid hypokalemic drugs
*diuretics
*corticosteroids
*cardiac glycosides
*anti arrhytmics
*pseudoephedrine
*glycyrrhiza

215

glycyrrhiza glabra actions / indications

adaptogen, phytoestrogen, hepatoprotective

viral infection
hormone balance
inflammation
hypoadrenocorticism
chronic fatigue syndrome

216

grindelia robusta actions / indications

respiratory stimulant

asthmatic breathing
dry cough
upper respiratory tract infection
bronchitis

217

gymnema sylvestre actions / indications

hypolipidemic, anti obesity

diabetes mellitus
hypercholesterolemia

218

<> hamamelis virginia

tannins: reduce druve absorption

219

hamamelis virginiana actions / indications

styptic, astringent

hemorrhage
varicose veins
chronic venous insufficiency
thrombophlebitis
DVT
enlarged cervix

220

harpagophytm procumbens actions / indications

bitter, anti-rheumatic

poor digestion
OA
RA
rheumatism

221

<> harpagophytum procumbens

antagonistic effect with PPI

222

<> humulus lupulus

antagonistic effect with PPI
bitter: decreased drug absorption

223

humulus lupus actions / indications

hypnotic, nervine, phytoestrogen, bitter

poor digestion
insomnia
estrogen imbalance
menopause

224

hydrangea arborescens actions / indications

anti-lithiic, renal sedative

urolithiasis
prostatitis
BPH
dysuria
cystitis
urethritis
acute nephritis
acute pyelonephritis

225

<> hydrastis canadensis

antagonistic effect with PPI
potentiates hypoglycemic drugs
may potentiate barbituates
reduce vitamin B absorption
bitters: decrease drug absorption

226

hydrastis canadensis actions / indications

bitter, "king of mucous membranes"

poor digestion
catarrh on mucus membranes

227

<> hyoscyamus niger

potentiates anticholinergic drugs
*atropine
*bupropion
*dextromethorphan
*dicyclomine
*diphenhydramine
*tiotropium bromide
*tolterodine
*TCA (amitryptyline)
*amantadine

228

hyoscyamus niger action / indications

anti-muscarinic (spasmolytic)

smooth muscle spasm
delirium
schizophrenia
insomnia

229

<> hypericum perforatum

may cause serontonin syndrome with SSRIs

CYP450 3A4 induction

antagonizes theophylline, cyclosporine, digoxin, warfarin

potentiates zidovudine

230

hypericum perforatum actions / indications

antidepressant, anti inflammatory

depresssion
deep painful wounds

231

inula helenium actions / indications

expectorant, demuclent, anti-tussive, antimicrobial

ashtma
COPD
cough
upper respiratory tract infection

232

Iris versicolor

cholagogue, alterative
biliary insufficiency
mild hepatitis
thyroid

233

Juglans nigras actions / indications

anti-parasitic, anti-helminthic

intestinal parasites and worms

234

<> juniperus communis

antagonistic effect with PPI
bitters: decrease drug absorption

235

juniperus communis actions / indications

bitter, antimicrobial, diuretic, counter irritant

internal: lower UTI, renal atonia, poor digestion

236

<> larrea tridentata

caution with hepatotoxic drugs
inhibits CYP450

237

larrea tridentata actions / indications

anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antineoplastic

topical: HSV

internal: cancer, infection

238

leonurus cardiaca actions / indications

anti-arrhytmic, nervine

palpitations
PMS
hyperthyroidism

239

leptandra virginica actions / indications

bitter, hepatotonic

poor diigestion
hepatitis
liver congestion
cholecystitis

240

<> ligusticum lucidum

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

241

ligusticum lucidum actions / indication

adaptogen, hypolipidemic

hypercholesterolemia
adjunct to chemotherapy
heptatitis
HTN

242

<> ligusticum porteri

may potentiate anticoagulants

243

ligusticum porteri actions / indications

antimicrobial

upper and lower respiratory tract infection

244

<> linum usitatissimum

inteferes with aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole)
inferferes with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride)

reduces drug absorption
reduces iron absorption

potentiates anticoagulants

245

linum usitatissimum actions / indications

demulcent, laxative

constipation
urinary tract condition
hormone balance

246

lobelia inflata actions / indications

stimulating expectorant

wet or spasmodic cough
asthma
respiratory tract infection

247

lomatium dissectum actions / indications

antiviral, anti tussive

viral respiratory infection

248

<> lycopus virginicus

may antagonize hypothyroid medications

249

lycopus virginicus actions / indications

thyroid and gonadotropin suppressant

hyperthyroidism

250

<> matricaria chamomilla

may potentiate
*sedatives
*antihistamines
*barbituates
*benzodiazepines
*opiates
*trazodone
*zolpidem

251

matricaria chamomilla actions / indications

anti-inflammatory, vulnerary, carminative

skin conditions (ulcer, wounds)
GI upset (colic, gastritis, IBD)
anxiety

252

<> medicago sativa

may potentiate hypoglycemic drugs
may antagonize warfarin
may antagonize HRT
induces CYP450

253

medicago sativa actions / indicaitons

phytoestrogen, hepatoprotective

hyper/hypo- estrogenism
endometriosis
infertility
menopause

254

melaleuca alternifolia actions / indications

"tea tree"

antifungal

dermatophytosis

255

melissa officinalis actions / indications

nervine, carminative

topical: HSV

internal: hyperthyroidism, anxiety, insomnia, dyspepsia, IBS, gas

256

mentha piperita actions / indications

carminative, nervine, counter irritant

internal: colic, non ulcer dyspepsia, flatus, maldigestion, IBS, n/v

257

mitchella repens actions / indications

uterine tonic

dysmennorrhea
infertility
leiomyoma
menorrhgia
threatened miscarriage
premature labor

258

<> momordica charantia

may potentiate insulin and hypoglycemic drugs

259

momordica charantia actions / indications

hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, digestive

diabetes mellitus
psoriasisskin eruptions
stomach ulcer
intestinal worms

260

<> olea europa

may potentiate hypoglycemic drugs

261

olea europa actions / indications

cardioprotective, hypotensive, cholagogue, vulnerary

HTN
hyperlipidemia
GI indications

262

<> panax ginseng

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

antagonize warfarin

may potentiate
*caffeine
*MAOi
*morphine
*insulin
*hypoglycemic drugs
*immune drugs (amoxicillin, zidovudine, 5-FU, flu vaccine, paclitaxel, tamoxifen, doxorubicin, methotrexate

263

panax ginsing actions / indications

adaptogen, phytoestrogen, vulnerary, anti-tumor

cancer
infection
autoimmne disease
fatigue
stress
hyper / hypo estrogen states

264

<> passiflora incarnata

may potentiate
*MAOi
*SSRI
*sedatives
*antihistamines
*barbituates
*benzodiazepines
*opiates
*trazodone
*zolpidem

265

passiflora incarnate actions / indications

hypnotic, anxiolytic, nervine, spasmolytic

insomnia
anxiety
spasms

266

<> pausinystalia yohimbe

potentiates
*alpha adrenergic blockers (carvedilol, risperidone, tamsulosin, trazodone)
*TCA
*MAOis
*Sympathomimeics

antagonizes clonidine, atropine

267

pausinystalia yohimbe actions / indications

aphrodisiac (alpha 2 adrenergic blocker), stimulant

impotence
ED
depression
narcolepsy

268

- phytolacca americana

pregnancy
long term use during lactation
high doses

269

phytolacca americana actions / indications

lymphatic, alterative, anti-rheumatic
* lymphadenopathy
* cysts
* mastitis
* OA, RA, myalgias
 

270

! phytolacca americana

GI irritation
respiratory paralysis
catharsis
arrhymtmia
death

271

piper methysticum actions / indications

anxiolytic, nervine, anodyne, muscle relaxant
* anxiety
* interstitial cystitis
* neuralgia
* leprosy
* gout
* GI and urinary catarrh

272

- piper methysticum

lactation
long term use at high doses

273

! piper methysticum

hepatotoxic
addictive
skin issues (exfoliative dermatitis, ulcers)
vomiting
unconsciousness

274

<> piper methysticum

potentiates anti-psychotics
potentiates benzodiazepines

275

piscidia erythrina actions / indications

anodyne, sedative, nervine, spasmolytic

myalgia
neuralgia
headaches
insomnia
pain
spasm

276

- piscidia erythrina

pregnancy
high doses

277

! piscidia erythrina

N/V
respiratory depression
heart failure
death

278

<> piscidia erythrina

may potentiate
*sedatives
*antihistamines
*barbituates
*benzodiazepines
*opiates
*trazodone
*zolpidem

279

plantago major actions / indications

demulcent, vulnerary, analgesic, immune modulator

topical
*dermatitis
*wounds
*skin ulcers

Internal:
*gastritis
*PUD
*lower UTI
*infections: respiratory tract

280

- plantago

wet cough

281

<> plantago

polysac. effect: decrease absorption of drugs

282

podophyllum pelatum actions / indications

antineoplastic, cholagogue, cathartic

warts
cancer

283

- podophyllum pelatum

ingesting fresh root

dz's commonly CI to cholagogue activity (gallstones intestinal obstruction)


topically over large area
pregnant
lactation

284

! podophyllum pelatum

dangerous reactions both topically and internal...death

285

prunus serotina actions / indications

relaxing expectorant

spasmodic cough
dry irritating cough
dyspnea

286

- prunus serotina

pregnancy

287

! prunus serotina

contains cyanogenic glycosides

Cyanide OD: dyspnea, spasms, stupor, vocal cord paraylsis, coma, death

288

prunus africanum actions / indications

prostatic tonic, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, anti-inflammatory

BPH
chronic prostatitis
low prostatic secretions

289

- prunus africanum

pregnancy
lactation

290

<> prunus africanum

may potentiate 5-alpha reductase inhibitors
*finasteride
*pygeum
*serenoa

291

pulsatilla vulgaris actions / indications

anodyne, sedative, nervine

pain (especially in female conditions)
insomnia
headache

292

- pulsatilla vulgaris

pregnancy
lactation

293

! pulsatilla vulgaris

n/v
paralysis
neurological suppression

294

quercus rubra actions / indications

astringent, styptic, antiseptic

topical weeping eczema, hemorrhoids

douche: leucorrhea, vaingal prolapse, post partum uterine bleeding

internal: diarrhea, IBD, ulcers

295

- quercus rubra

heart failure
large areas with skin damage
constipation
iron deficiency anemia

296

<> quercus rubra

tannins: reduce drug absorption

297

! quercus rubra

malabsorption with long term use

298

rauwolfia serpentina actions / indications

systemic vasodilator, hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, anti-psychotic

HTN
reynaud's
schizophrenia
insomnia
vasospasm

299

- rauwolfia serpentina

depression
parkinson's
hyperprolactinemia
active PUD
UC
pregnancy

300

! rauwolfia serpentina

severe catecholamine depleting (nightmares, hyperchlorhydria, peptic ulcer, bradycardia, depression, parkinsonism)

sodium retention
loose stool
edema
hypotension

301

<> rauwolfia serptina

antagonizes
* MAOi
* TCA
*digoxin
*sympathomimetics (albuterol, salbutamol, epinephrine, phenyleprine, pseudoephedrine)

depletes catecholamines
*NE
*epinephrine
*serontonin
*dopamine

302

rhodiola rosea actions / indications

adaptogen, antidepressant

stress
suppressed immune system
cancer
depression

303

- rhodiola rosea

pregnancy
lactation

304

<> rhodiola rosea

inhibits CYP450

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

may potentiate
*MAOi
*SSRI
*sedatives
*antihistamines
*barbituates
*benzodiazepines
*opiates
*trazodone
*zolpidem

305

ricinus communis topical actions / indications

anodyne, inflammation modulator, parturifacient

dysmennorrhea
ovarian cysts
PMS
colic
myalgia
labour stimulant
intestinal parasites

306

- ricinus communis topical

areas of broken skin

307

rosmarinus officinalis actions / indications

circulatory stimulant, counter irritant, carminative

topical: myalgia, neuralgia, arthritis, alopecia

internal: cerebrovascular insufficiency, maldigestion, liver detox enhancement

308

- rosmarinus officinalis

pregnancy
epilepsy

309

! rosmarinus officinalis

neurotoxic
death

310

<> rosmarinus officinalis

may potentiate
*doxorubicin
*vinblastine

311

rubus idaeus actions / indications

parturifacient, uterine tonic

preparation for labour diarrhea

312

- rubus idaeus

early pregnancy

313

<> rubus idaeus

antagonizes warfarin
inhibits CYP450
tannins: reduce drug absorption

314

Rumex crispus actions / indications

cholagogue, alterative

chronic skin conditions
acne

315

salix alba actions / indications

anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anitpyretic, astringent

pain
interstitial cystitis
OA
RA
fever
myalgia

316

- salix alba

childhood viral exanthema
G6PD
lactation

317

! salix alba

salicylism (nausea, vomiting, GI irritation, tinnitus, lethargy, dizziness, cerebral edema, seizures

318

<> salix alba

may potentiate acetaminophen and NSAIDs, wafarin

319

salvia officinalis actions / indications

antimicrobial, astringent, anti-secretory

topical: pharyngitis, tonsillitis, gingivitis, warts, peritonsillar abcess

menopausal hot flashes

320

- salvia officinalis

large doses
pregnancy
lactation

321

! salvia officinalis

contains thujone: emmenagogue, abortifacient, convulsions

essential oil can cause death, neurotoxicity,

322

sambucus nigra flower actions / indications

diaphoretic, inflammatin mod, anti-allergic, astringent

fever
allergic conjunctivitis
rhinitis
pharyngitis
tonsillitits
sinusitis

323

sambucus nigra fruit actions / indications

antiviral, antioxidant, anti-catarrhal, anti-rheumatic

influenza
URTI
neuralgia
rheumatism

324

sanguinaria canadensis actions / indications

eschariotic, stimulating expectorant, cholaguge, sialogogue

topically: cervical dysplasia, BCC, SCC, tinea pedis, warts,

325

schizandra chinensis actions / indications

adaptogen, hepatoprotective

chronic hepatitis
liver damage fatigue
physical stress debility
depression
insomnia
withdrawal from benzodiazepines, opiates
acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

326

- schizandra chinensis

pregnancy

327

<> schizandra chinensis

potentiates
*barbituates

inhibits CYP450

328

scutellaria baicalensis actions / indications

antiinflammatory, antimicrobial

cancer
OA
RA

329

- scutellaria baicalensis

early pregnancy

330

! scutellaria baicalensis

possible hepatotoxicity, sedation, hypotension

331

<> scutellaria baicalensis

may potentiate
*warfarin
*sedatives
*antihistamines
*barbituates
*benzodiazepines
*opiates
*trazodone
*zolpidem

332

scutellaria lateriflora actions / indicatinos

hypnotic, anxiolytic

insomnia
anxiety

333

selenicereus grandiflorus actions / indications

anti-arrhythmic, diuretic

arrhythmias
palpitations
CHF

334

- , ! selenicereus grandiflorus

- pregnancy, lactation, high doses

! nausea, vomiting, GI distress, heart failure

335

serenoa repens actions / indications

prostatic tonic, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, diuretic

BPH
hyperestrosteronism
impotence

336

- serenoa repens

use before surgery

337

<> serenoa repens

may potentiate
*warfarin
*5-alpha reductase inhibitors

338

silybum marianum actions / indications

hepatoprotective, hepatorestorative

Hepatitis
cirrhosis
fatty liver
prevention of cholelithiasis
jaundice
psoriasis

339

- silybum marianum

pregnancy

340

<> silybum marianum

potentiates
*doxorubucin

protects against
*acetaminophen hepato/nephrotoxicity
*cisplatin nephrotoxicity
*cyclosporine pancreatic toxicity
*methotrexate hepatotoxicity

341

smilax actions / indications

alterative, anti-inflammatory

chronic dermatitis
OA
RA
gout

342

<> Smilax

increased absorption of digitalis glycosides

343

- , ! smilax

- , ! GERD

344

solidago spp. actions / indications

anti-catarrhal, diuretic

topical wound healing

internal: upper respiratory tract infection, cystiotis, urethritis, dysuria

345

Symphytum officinale actions / indication

demulcent, vulnerary

topical, wounds, ulcers

internal: inflammation of the lungs / GI tract

346

- , ! , <> symphytum officinale

contains unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids

ea, hepato veno occlusive dz, hepatic failure, death

<> synergist with hepatotoxic drugs

347

tanacetum parthenium actions / indications

inflammation modulator, carminative

migraine headaches

348

- tanacetum parthenium

pregnancy

349

<> tanacetum parthenium

antagonize morphine

potentiate warfarin

350

tanacetum vulgare actions / indications

anti-parasitic, anti-helminthic

intestinal parasites, worms

351

- tanacetum vulgare

contains thujone
pregnancy
lactation

352

! tanacetum vulgare

containes thujone
possible carcinogen

353

taraxacum officinale leafe actions / indications

bitter, diuretic, choleretic

lower UTI
urolithiais
edema

354

taraxacum officinale root actions / indications

bitter, hepatoprotective

Poor digestion

355

- taraxacum officinale

dz's common to bitter digestive stimulation

356

<> taraxacum officinale

antagonize PPI

may potentiates
*lithium
*hypoglycemic drugs

reduce B vitamin absorption

Bitter effect: decrease drug absorption

357

theobroma cacao actions / indications

stimulant, vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant

smooth muscle spasms
HTN
anxiety
cirrhosis

358

<> theobroma cacao

reduce absorption of Iron
HTN crisis with use of MAOi

359

thuja occindentalis actions / indications

immune modulator, diuretic

topical: warts, lecuorrhea, anal fissures, chancre, ulcers

interal: incontrinence, enuriesis, GU catarrh, bronchitis,

360

- , ! thuja occindentalis

- pregnancy
- lactation

contains thujone

361

thymus vulgaris actions / indications

antimicrobial, counter irritant

internal: gastroenteritis, infections, asthma

362

<> thymus vulgaris

potentiate warfarin

363

tilea europa actions / indications

vasodilator, nervine, spasmolytic

topical: anxiety, HTN, dermatitis, pruritis
internal: restlessness, migraine, HTN

364

<> tilea europa

decrease absorption of iron

365

tribulus terrestris actions / indications

sex hormone enhancer, negative chronotropic

infertility
CAD
decreased libido

366

- tribulus terrestris

GERD
cholestasis
BPH
pregnancy
lactation

367

<> tribulus terrestris

may potentiate
*cardiac glycosides
*beta blockers
*Ca channel blockers

368

trifolium pratense actions / indications

phytoestrogen, nervine,

estrogen imbalance
menopause

369

<> trifolium pratense

may potentiate warfarin

370

tussilago farfara actions / indications

relaxing expectorant, anti-tussive

dry cough
inflammation of HEENT and respiratory tract

371

- , ! , <> tussilago farfara

contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids


! nausea, hepato veno occlusive dz, hepatic failure, death

<> synergist with hepatotoxic drugs

372

ulmus rubra actions / indications

demulcent, astringent, anti-inflammatory

GI inflammation
lower UTI
sore throat

373

<> ulmus rubra

polysac. effect: reduce absorption of drugs

374

urtica dioica leaf actions / indications

leaf: diureteic, counter irrtant
seed: nephro-protective
root: prostatic tonic

leaf: OA, RA
leaf internal: lower UTI
seed intenral : chronic renal failure
root intenral: BPH

375

usnea barbata actions / indications

antimicrobial

infection
RA

376

- usnea barbata

usneic acid is hepatotoxic when isolated and administered

377

vaccinium myrtillus actions / indicaitons

ventotonic, antioxidant

chronic venous insufficency
diabetic retinopathy
diarrhea
constipation

378

! vaccinium myrtillus

long term use may damage liver

379

<> vaccinium myrtillus

may potentiate insulin / hypoglycemic drugs

tannins effect: may reduce absorption

380

valeriana officinalis actions / indications

hypnotic, anxiolytic

insomnia
anxiety

381

<> valeriana officinalis

may potentiate
*sedatives
*antihistamines
*barbituates
*benzodiazepines
*opiates
*trazodone
*zolpidem

382

veratrum album actions / indications

hypotensive, cholera

HTN
cholera

383

- veratrum album

do not prescribe, too toxic
pregancy
lactation

384

verbascum thapsus

demulcent, anti-tussive

topical: acute otitis media, otitis externa
internal: cough, asthma, COPD

385

verbena officinalis actions / indications

pituitary balancing, nervine, galactagogue, emmenagogue

anovulation, dysmenorrhea, hepatitis

386

<> verbena officinalis

may antagonize warfarin

387

viburnum opulus / prunifolium actions / indicaitons

spasmolytic, astrringent, emmenagoguge

dysmenorrhea
PMS
smooth muscl spasms
opiate withdrawal

388

! viburnum opulus / prunifolium

contains salicin --> salicylate hypersenstivity

389

vinca major actions / indications

hypotensive, circulatory stimulant

HTN
menorrhagia
metrorrhagia

390

- vinca major

pregnancy
lactation

391

viscum album / flavescens actions / indications

hypotensive, anti-tumour, cerebral circulatory stimulant

subQ: HIV, AIDs, cancer
internal: HTN, headahce, vertigo, epilepsy, neuralgia, rheumatism, tachycardia

392

<> viscum album / flavescens

may potentiate MAOIs

393

- viscum album / flavescens

pregnancy
lactation
migraines

394

vitex agnus castus actions /indicaitons

pituitary balancing, uterine tonic

dysmenorrhea
PMS
hyper prolacteinemia
hypoestrogenism

395

- vitex agnus castus

pregnancy
impotence

396

! vitex agnus castus

formication

397

withania somniferi actions / indications

adaptogen,sedative, enhace cognition

chronic stress
nervous exhaustion
anxiety

398

<> withania somniferi

potentiates
*phenobarbital
*epileptics

antagonize immune suppression therapy
*adalimumab
*cyclosporine
*corticosteroids

399

- withania somniferi

pregnancy
autoimmune dz

400

zingiber officinale actions /indications

digestive stimulant, carminative, anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory

maldigestion
motions sickness
inflmation
aspirin damage to mucosal surfaces

401

- zingiber officinale

PUD
gastritis
hyperchlorhydria
bilary obstruciton
actue cholelithasis
diarrhea
raynaud's

402

<> zingiber officinale

may potentiate warfarin

antagonize anacids

decrease drug absorption