Flashcards in All Medieval Crime and Punishment Deck (69)
Who chose the King in medieval times?
Medieval people believed their kings were chosen by God.
Why was the king the most important person in the country?
Because he controlled the land and how to share it out.
What were the two main tasks facing medieval kings?
1. Defending the country from attack
2. Ensuring their subjects were protected by the law.
Who were the king's main supporters and advisers?
How did the king gain the loyalty of the nobles?
By giving them land.
What did the nobles give the king in return for land?
In return for land, the nobles gave the king knights and military service in times of war. They were also expected to keep law and order in their own lands.
Why was the church so important to medieval people?
Because people saw this life as preparation for the eternal afterlife after death. They believed firmly in Heaven and Hell. Therefore the Church was important because it offered ways to help a person's soul get to Heaven.
What did the Church expect of people?
Everyone was expected to attend church and live by its rules - there was a priest in every village.
How did the Church sometimes come into conflict with the kings?
Because they ran their own courts for churchmen (priests etc) and also offered sanctuary to criminals who took refuge in a church building.
Why did the practice of sanctuary and ecclesiastical court cause conflict with kings?
Because kings wanted to enforce royal justice on everyone without interference.
What is the definition of peasant?
Farmers who worked the land and lived in villages.
How were peasants treated?
Feudalism required peasants to swear an oath of loyalty and obedience to their lord. This oath bound the peasants to their lord for life. It restricted them from marrying or even leaving the village without the permission of the lord.
Could a peasant ever be free from their lord?
A peasant could only be free from his lord if he managed to escape the manor and live independently for one year and one day: 'Refer animation'
How were peasant's lives controlled?
In exchange for their loyalty, peasants were leased land to farm and given protection by the local lord. Peasants usually spent three days working for the lord. They worked repairing roads and bridges, and farming the lord's land.
Why was this control over peasant's lives harsh?
Peasants also had to work the land which they rented. Despite barely having enough time to farm their own land, they were also forced to work church land, known as the glebe.
How did tithings work?
It was a kind of self-help system - if one person in the tithing broke the law, the other members had to bring him to court - or pay a fine.
When were these started?
By the 10th century, Anglo-Saxon kings had established tithings.
Who was in a tithing?
A group of about ten men, responsible for each others' behaviour, all over the age of 12.
What was the Hue and cry?
A loud cry calling for the pursuit and capture of a criminal.
Why did people raise the hue and cry?
In former English law, the cry had to be raised by the inhabitants of a hundred in which a robbery had been committed, if they were not to become liable for the damages suffered by the victim.
What did people do?
They would even down all tools and join together to hunt for the criminal - otherwise the whole village may have to pay a hefty fine.
What two types of trial were there in the Anglo-Saxon part of the medieval period?
Trial by local jury and trial by ordeal.
How did trial by local jury work?
It relied on the local community and used a form of trial by jury.
What was the jury?
The jury was made up of men from the village who knew both the accuser and the accused.
How did the jury decide?
The accuser and the accused would each give their version of events and it was up to the jury to decide who was telling the truth.
But, what if there was no clear evidence such as eye witnesses?
Then the jury decided guilt or innocence based on their knowledge of the people involved. If the jury felt that the accuser was more honest than the accused, they would swear an oath that the accused was guilty.
What was the name for the oath sworn by the jury?
What was trial by ordeal?
If a local jury could not decide guilt or innocence, the Saxons turned to trial by ordeal in the hope that God would help them.
What were the 4 types of trial by ordeal?
1. Hot iron
2. Hot water
3. Blessed Bread
4. Cold water