Flashcards in Crime and Punishment in modern Britain c. 1900-present Deck (98)
Which decade saw the biggest changes to the law due to changing social attitudes?
The 1960s - a decade when there were many changes in social attitudes; many activities that were formerly crimes were decriminalised, while some activities were newly defined as crimes.
What change to the law was there in 1967?
Sexual Offences Act. It decriminalised homosexual acts in private between two men, both of whom had to have attained the age of 21. The Act applied only to England and Wales and did not cover the Merchant Navy or the Armed Forces.
What change to the law was there in 1968 to reflect the growth in immigration from Commonwealth countries?
The Race Relations Acts was passed.
What did the 1968 Race Relation Act make illegal?
It became illegal to refuse jobs, housing or public services to anyone on the basis of their race, ethnic background or country of origin.
What extension was made to the 1968 Race Relations Act in 2006?
It was extended to include spreading racial or religious hatred as a crime.
What change was made in 1967 which affected women's reproductive rights?
The Abortion Act was passed.
What change was brought about by the Abortion Act?
The 1967 Abortion Act legalised abortion if certain conditions were met:
1. The child was going to have serious disabilities;
2. The mother was at risk of serious physical or mental harm if the pregnancy continued - this had to be verified by two doctors independently.
What was the legal limit for abortion (the latest stage at which an abortion could be carried out) in 1968?
Could a woman get an abortion legally before 1967?
No, Only in extreme exceptions where it was likely the mother might die as a result of the pregnancy.
What was a 'backstreet abortion up to 1967?
It was a dangerous and illegal way to end a pregnancy, carried out by someone without proper medical training, using alcohol, wire coat hangars or poisons.
What change was made to the law in 1976 to protect people who were being abused within a relationship?
The Domestic Violence Act was passed.
What right did the 1976 Domestic Violence Act give victims?
The right to ask for an injunction (check the definition of this word) against a violent partner.
What further protection was given to married women in 1991?
Rape within marriage was recognised as a crime and it became possible for a husband to be prosecuted for raping his wife.
What further protection was introduced in 2014?
Controlling and coercive behaviour (using force or threats) towards a partner was made a crime.
What examples can you give of controlling and coercive behaviour?
Telling a partner who they can see, what they can wear, stopping access to money, controlling access to a phone and controlling when they leave the home.
What evidence suggests that, despite changes to the law, domestic violence continues to be a problem?
Two women in England and Wales a week are killed by their current or former partner.
What 6 examples are there of crimes that have continued to be considered 'social crimes' which are accepted in society to some degree?
1. Smuggling (or not paying duty on alcohol and cigarettes, for example)
2. Minor driving offences
3. Using illegal drugs
4. Tax evasion
6. Copyright theft
How is copyright a social crime?
Many people download music, games and films from the Internet even though they are subject to copyright laws. Because they are widely and freely available, most people do not view this as criminal.
Are minor driving offences still a social crime, accepted by a large part of the country?
To a lesser and lesser extent as time goes on. Drink driving was made illegal in the 19th century and today is widely condemned by the general public. The same is true of speeding.
What laws have been introduced to control drink driving since the 19th century?
1872 - Driving a horse-drawn carriage while drunk made illegal
1925 - Drink driving a car illegal
1967 - New law limiting the amount of alcohol a person can have in their blood stream and still drive
What has changed public perceptions to make drink driving and speeding less socially acceptable?
Advertising campaigns by the government as well as severe penalties which mean drivers found guilty of these offences can lose their license to drive or even be charged with manslaughter if a death occurs.
When did drug taking become illegal?
In 1971, when the Misuse of Drugs Act was passed.
Why do some people believe drug taking should be legal?
They argue that it only harms the individual who is making the decision to take the drugs.
Why do some people believe drug taking should remain illegal?
They argue that it leads to dangers associated with drug dealing, sex trafficking and gang-related violence.
So, how has smuggling actually changed between the 18th/19th centuries and the modern period from 1900?
1. The types of goods smuggled has changed from brandy, tea and cloth to illegal drugs, untaxed alcohol and tobacco, weapons and even people.
2. Transport used has changed from sailing ships to air freight and rail.
How has smuggling remained the same between the 18th/19th centuries and the modern period from 1900?
1. Smugglers are still motivated by saving money or making profits.
2. There is still a huge public demand for goods at cheaper prices.
What 6 examples can you give of old crimes that have new names or ways of being carried out?
2. People trafficking
5. Copyright theft
What is terrorism?
It is the use of violence,fear and intimidation to publicise a political cause.
How old is terrorism?
Examples of terrorism are as old as mankind itself! The 1605 Gunpowder Plot is a famous example in this country. The terms 'terrorism' and 'terrorist' originate from Russia in the late 19th century.