ALL the MEDS! Flashcards Preview

Neuro/Psych/Optho > ALL the MEDS! > Flashcards

Flashcards in ALL the MEDS! Deck (81):
1

Phenytoin

Treats:
- GTC, Focal seizures
- Status Epilepticus prophylaxis

MOA:
- Na+ channel block

AEs:
- Purple glove
- Gingival hyperplasia

2

Oxcarbazine

Treats:
- GTC, focal seizures

MOA:
- Na+ channel block

3

Lamotrigine

Treats:
- ALL seizure types
- GOOD Bipolar med

MOA:
- Na+ channel block

AEs:
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis

4

Lacosamide

Treats:
- Focal seizures

MOA:
- Na+ channel block

5

Carbemazepine

Treats:
- GTC, focal seizures
- Bipolar disorder
- Trigeminal neuralgia

MOA:
- Na+/K+ channel block

AEs:
- Reacts with everything
- Autoinducer
- Must perform HLA-typing
- DON'T use in myoclonic, absense, aclonic seizures

6

Zonisamide

Treats:
- All seizure disorders

MOA:
- Na+, Ca+2, Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitor

7

Phenobarbitol

Treats:
- GTC, focal seizures in INFANTS

MOA:
- Opens Cl- channel longer in GABA

AEs:
- Overdose- don't use except in children

8

Benzos

Treats:
- ALL seizure types
- Status epilepticus
- EtOH withdrawal
- Anxiety
- Sleep

MOA:
- Increases Cl- channel opening frequency in GABA

AEs:
- Withdrawal seizures
- Do not take with EtOH
- Respiratory depression

** Treat overdose with Flumazenil

9

Valproate

Treats:
- ALL seizure types
- Bipolar disorder
- Migraines

MOA:
- GABA increase
- Decrease NMDA receptors

AEs:
- Thrombocytopenia
- Children: Pancreatitis, Hepatitis
- Neural tube defects

10

Tigabine

Treats:
- partial seizures

MOA:
- GABA increase

11

Topiramate

Treats:
- ALL seizure but absence type
- Migraine
- Weight loss

MOA:
- Increase GABA
- Decrease NMDA
- CA inhibitor
- Ca+2 block in hippocampus

AEs:
- Kidney stones

12

Ethosuxamide

Treats:
- Absence seizures

MOA:
- T-type Ca+2 channels

13

Gabapentin, Pregabalin

Treats:
- GTC, focal seizures
- pain

MOA:
- alpha-2 delta subunit of Ca+2

14

Levitiracetam

Treats:
- GTC
- Focal epilepsy
- Myoclonic epilepsy

MOA:
- SV2A

15

Lithium

#1 Bipolar treatment

AEs:
- Kidney problems
- Hypothyroidism
- Weight gain
- Tremor
- Decreased cognitive function
- Ebstein's anomaly

16

Haldol

Typical antipsychotic
- D2 antagonist

Increased EPS, tardive dyskinesia

17

Chlopromazide

Typical antipsychotic
- D2 antagonist

Increased EPS, tardive dyskinesia

18

Thirodazine

Typical antipsychotic
- D2 antagonist

Increased EPS, tardive dyskinesia

19

Prochlorperdazine

Typical antipsychotic
- D2 antagonist

Increased EPS, tardive dyskinesia

20

Trifluoperazine

Typical antipsychotic
- D2 antagonist

Increased EPS, tardive dyskinesia

21

Clozapine

Atypical Antipsychotic
- D3, D4 antagonist (limbic structures)
- Serotonin antagonist (cortical structures)

AEs:
- Agranulocytosis

22

Risperidone

Atypical Antipsychotic
- D3, D4 antagonist (limbic structures)
- Serotonin antagonist (cortical structures)

AEs:
- EPS

23

Ziprasidone

Atypical Antipsychotic
- D3, D4 antagonist (limbic structures)
- Serotonin antagonist (cortical structures)

24

Olanzepine

Atypical Antipsychotic
- D3, D4 antagonist (limbic structures)
- Serotonin antagonist (cortical structures)

AEs:
- Metabolic syndrome

25

Quetiapine

Atypical Antipsychotic
- D3, D4 antagonist (limbic structures)
- Serotonin antagonist (cortical structures)

* only works for positive symptoms

26

Aripiprazole

Atypical Antipsychotic
- Partial D3, D4 antagonist (limbic structures)
- Serotonin antagonist (cortical structures)

27

Sertraline

SSRI

*Short T1/2

AEs:
- Sexual dysfunction
- Serotonin sickness (+ MAOIs, amphetamines)
- P450 inhibitor

28

Paroxetine

SSRI

*Sedating

AEs:
- Sexual dysfunction
- Serotonin sickness (+ MAOIs, amphetamines)
- P450 inhibitor

29

Citalopram

SSRI

AEs:
- Sexual dysfunction
- Serotonin sickness (+ MAOIs, amphetamines)
- P450 inhibitor

30

Escitalopram

SSRI

AEs:
- Sexual dysfunction
- Serotonin sickness (+ MAOIs, amphetamines)
- P450 inhibitor

31

Fluvoxamine

SSRI

AEs:
- Sexual dysfunction
- Serotonin sickness (+ MAOIs, amphetamines)
- P450 inhibitor

32

Fluoxetine

SSRI

* long T1/2

AEs:
- Sexual dysfunction
- Serotonin sickness (+ MAOIs, amphetamines)
- P450 inhibitor

33

Duloxetine

SNRI

* Diabetic neuropathy

AEs:
- Withdrawal syndrome if d/c
- Dose-dependent HTN

34

Venlafaxine

SNRI

AEs:
- Withdrawal syndrome if d/c
- Dose-dependent HTN

35

Buproprion

NDRI

Uses:
- Adult ADHD
- Smoking cessation
- Depression

AEs:
- Dose dependent seizure risk

36

Impramine

TCA= NE and serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Uses:
- Refractory depression
- Enuresis

AEs:
- Sexual
- O/D possible--> tx with bicarb
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Weight gain
- QT-prolongation
** Monitor levels

37

Desipramine

TCA= NE and serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Uses:
- Refractory depression
- Enuresis

AEs:
- Sexual
- O/D possible--> tx with bicarb
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Weight gain
- QT-prolongation
** Monitor levels

38

Amitriptyline

TCA= NE and serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Uses:
- Refractory depression
- Enuresis
- Migraine prophylaxis

AEs:
- Sexual
- O/D possible--> tx with bicarb
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Weight gain
- QT-prolongation
** Monitor levels

39

Nortriptyline

TCA= NE and serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Uses:
- Refractory depression
- Enuresis

AEs:
- Sexual
- O/D possible--> tx with bicarb
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Weight gain
- QT-prolongation
** Monitor levels

40

Phenelzine

MAO-A inhibitor: breaks down NA/ serotonin/ Tyramine

Uses:
- Depression
- Bipolar

AEs:
- Tyramine-containing foods--> stroke
- Amphetamine--> malignant HTN
- Discontinue 2 weeks prior to surgery
- Washout= 2 weeks
- Serotonin syndrome with SSRI

41

Tranylcypramine

MAO-A inhibitor: breaks down NA/ serotonin/ Tyramine

Uses:
- Depression
- Bipolar

AEs:
- Tyramine-containing foods--> stroke
- Amphetamine--> malignant HTN
- Discontinue 2 weeks prior to surgery
- Washout= 2 weeks
- Serotonin syndrome with SSRI

42

Selegiline

MAO-B inhibitor: breaks down DA/ histamine/ Tyramine

Uses:
- Parkinson's

AEs:
- Tyramine-containing foods--> stroke
- Amphetamine--> malignant HTN
- Discontinue 2 weeks prior to surgery
- Washout= 2 weeks
- Serotonin syndrome with SSRI

43

Reselegine

MAO-B inhibitor: breaks down DA/ histamine/ Tyramine

Uses:
- Parkinson's

AEs:
- Tyramine-containing foods--> stroke
- Amphetamine--> malignant HTN
- Discontinue 2 weeks prior to surgery
- Washout= 2 weeks
- Serotonin syndrome with SSRI

44

Naturally occurring opioids

Paragoric (infants in withdrawal)
Morphine
Codeine

45

Partially-synthetic opioids

Heroin
Apomorphine
Oxycodone
Hydromorphone

46

Synthetic opioids

Miperidine (convulsions)
Methadone (5x stronger than morphine)
Fentanyl (80x stronger than morphine)
Loperamide
Diphenoxylate

47

Ketamine

IV anesthetic

MOA:
- NMDA block
- Muscarinic Antagonist
- Mu agonist

AEs:
- Emergence reactions
- Hallucinations
- Random movements

48

Propafol

IV anesthetic

MOA:
- Potentiate GABA

AEs:
- Organic blend- discard after 6 hours
- Rapid, clear recovery

49

Etomidate

IV anesthetic

MOA:
- Non-barbituate hypnotic

50

-Fluranes

Inhaled anesthetics

AEs:
- Decreased myocardial contractility
- Decreased respiratory drive
- Decreased pulmonary vascular resistance
- Decreased mucocillary reflex
- N/V
- Increased Cerebral blood flow

51

Esters (1 I)

Topical anesthetics
- Block Na+ channel (C-fibers= pain fibers)

52

Amides (2 I's)

Topical anesthetics
- Block Na+ channels (C-fibers)

53

Promethazine

DA antagonist (Phenothiazine)
- Centrally-acting antiemetic

AEs:
- EPS
- CNS depression

** Injection gangrene

54

Chlorpromazine

DA antagonist (Phenothiazine)
- Centrally-acting antiemetic

AEs:
- EPS
- CNS depression

55

Prochlorperazine

DA antagonist (Phenothiazine)
- Centrally-acting antiemetic

AEs:
- EPS
- CNS depression

56

Thiethylperazine

DA antagonist (Phenothiazine)
- Centrally-acting antiemetic

AEs:
- EPS
- CNS depression

57

Droperidol

Dopamine antagonist: Butyrophenone derivative
- Centrally acting antiemetic

AEs:
- EPS, CNS depression

58

Trimethobenzamide

Dopamine antagonist (Benzamide)
- Centrally-acting antiemetic

AEs:
- EPS
- CNS depression
- Reye's syndrome

59

Metoclopramide

Dopamine antagonist (Benzamide)
- Centrally-acting antiemetic
- Peripheral: increases upper GI motility

AEs:
- EPS
- CNS depression

60

Scopalamine

Anticholinergic
- Centrally-acting antiemetic
- Used for Motion sickness

AEs:
- Anhydrosis, hyperthermia, anuria
- Agitation

61

Diphenhydramine, Dimenhydrinate

Antihistamines
- Centrally-acting antiemetics
- Used for Motion sickness

AEs:
- Sedation, blurred vision

62

Hydroxyzine, Medizine, Cyclizine

Antihistamines
- Centrally-acting antiemetics
- Used for motion sickness

AEs:
- Sedation, blurred vision

63

-Setrons

Serotonin antagonists
- Centrally-acting antiemetics

AEs:
- H/A, N/V, weakness

64

Aprepitant

NK-1 Antagonists
- Centrally-acting antiemetic
- Chemo-related N/V

65

Dihydroergotamine

Migraine medication
Nonselective 5-HT1 agonist

AEs:
- Fewer side effects than ergotamine
- Less nausea, vomiting, leg cramps
- Low headache recurrence
- Rebound headache rare
**Teratogenic**

66

Triptans

Effective:
- In migraine with and without aura
- Both early and late in attack

Best to give early:
- Improves response to therapy
- Prevents attack progression
- Do not wait for allodynia to develop
- Second dose not effective in same attack if initial dose failed

AEs:
- Very low risk of severe AEs
- Rare reports of angina, MI, stroke, and significantly increased BP
- Common minor AEs: Chest tightness, asthenia, dizziness, somnolence, paresthesia
- Chest symptoms rarely due to ischemia
** Teratogenic**

Possible mechanisms for AEs:
- Activation of peripheral pain fibers
- Pulmonary vasoconstriction
- Not indicated for basilar or hemiplegic migraine

67

Buprenorphone

Partial Mu Agonist

Uses:
- Heroin addiction
+ Naltrexone= suboxone (can't be snorted--> antagonistic effects only)

68

Pentazocine

Mixed agonist/antagonist
- K and Mu agonist (without other opioid)
- Antagonist of Mu in presence of other opioids

Uses:
- Counteract AEs of opioids (respiratory depression, constipation)

69

Nalbuphine

Mixed agonist/antagonist
- K and Mu agonist (without other opioid)
- Antagonist of Mu in presence of other opioids

Uses:
- Counteract AEs of opioids (respiratory depression, constipation)

70

Butorphenol

Mixed agonist/antagonist
- K and Mu agonist (without other opioid)
- Antagonist of Mu in presence of other opioids

Uses:
- Counteract AEs of opioids (respiratory depression, constipation)

71

Naloxone (IV), Naltrexone (oral)

Opioid Antagonist
- Used for overdose

72

Alvimopan

Opioid antagonist
- Used to treat opioid-induced constipation

73

Methylanltrexone

Opioid antagonist
- Used to treat opioid-induced constipation

74

Tramadol

Dual action: Mu opioid receptor, NE reuptake inhibitor

75

Tapentadol

Dual action: Mu opioid receptor, NE reuptake inhibitor

76

Codeine

Opioid

Uses:
- Suppress cough (CTZ)

77

Dextromethorphan

Non-opioid cough suppressant

78

Loperamide

Opioid antagonist
- antidiarrheal

79

Benzonatate

Peripherally-acting cough suppressant
- Works at stretch receptor

80

N-acetylcysteine

Mucolytic
Acetaminophen overdose

81

Guafenasine

Expectorant