Flashcards in All y’all better pass! Deck (76):
What is the lithosphere?
Crust and the top most part of the upper mantle
Name the soil layers (5 layers).
1. O horizon: Contains organic matter (humus)
2. A horizon: Mixture of humus and minerals that dissolve in water
3. B horizon: Composed of small minerals,tree roots develop here
4. C horizon: formed by disintegrated parent rock
5. Bedrock: starting point of soil formation
What is permafrost?
Frozen soil found in polar regions.During the summer the top layer thaws, plants grow during a short period of time.
What are some consequences of melting permafrost?
1. Land slides
2. Impacting structure of houses
3. Intensifying greenhouse gas effect( when permafrost melts the organic matter in it decomposes, releasing carbon dioxide and methane)
How are fossil fuels created?
- Oil and natural gas come from marine animals and algae. When they died they sink to the bottom and are covered with sediment. Pressure turned them into oil.
- Coal is formed the same way but in swamps
Consequences of fossil fuels.
1. Non renewable
2. Burning fossil fuels release carbon dioxide and methane (main causes of climate change)
What is uranium?
A radio active element that produces a large amount of energy.
Consequences of uranium?
1. Non renewable
2. Produces a large amount of energy, if a radioactive explosion happens material and equipment stay radioactive for 100 of years.
What is combustion and what are the elements needed for combustion to happen?
Combustion is a release of a large amount of energy resulting in a something burning ( fire ). The elements needed for combustion are:
Name and explain the 3 types of combustion.
1. Rapid: in a short period of time releases a lot of energy( camp fire)
2. Spontaneous: fuel reaches ignition temperature without an outside source (forest fire)
3. Slow: occurs over a long period of time (rust)
What Is the carbon cycle?
Describes all exchanges of carbon on earth
Name and explain all 9 of the carbon exchanges.
1. Photosynthesis: plants use solar energy to capture co2, changes into glucose plants use for energy to grow.
2.Ingestion: animals eat plants to get carbon
3. Respiration: living organism exhale releasing co2
4. Décomposition of waste: carbon eliminated by urine, feces, death... then get decomposed
5. Forest fire: releases carbon through burning trees
6. Shells and skeletons: carbon dissolved in water reacts with calcium forming shells and skeletons of marine organism
7. Carbonate rock: the calcium carbonate from shells and skeletons fall to the bottom of the ocean and get covered by sediment turning it into carbonate rock.
8. Volcanic eruptions: carbonate rock melts when in contact with magma returning carbon to atmosphere.
9. Fossil fuels: dead organism fall to ocean floor and get covered with sediment, carbon changes into coal or oil.
What are two other words for catchment area?
1. Drainage basin
What is a catchment area?
An area of land whose lakes and rivers all flow to the same larger body of water.
What causes the water to flow the same direction?
The natural slope of the land causes water to flow in the same direction
What natural phenomenas (5 things) can affect how water flows inside a catchment area?
1. Topography: shape,slope
2. Geology: type,depth, structure of rock
3. Climate: amount of rain or snowfall, winds and temperature
4. Vegetation: density and diversity
5. Human interference: agricultural,industrial and urban development
What is salinity?
The amount of salt dissolved in a liquid
How does the ocean water become salty?
From the seawater constantly smashing the rocks into each other, chipping them away and adding mineral salts to the water
Why does salt water have a greater density than freshwater?
Salt water contains more sodium chloride atoms that add to its mass
Near the poles, how do glaciers affect the salinity of the water?
Melting glaciers dilute the seawater and reduce its concentration of salt.
Why does the water near the equator have a higher salinity?
The heat makes water evaporate faster, leaving the salt behind, thus raising the concentration of salt.
How does the ocean circulate?
The ocean is in constant circulation due to waves,tides and currents
The ocean has 2 types of currents. What are they called and explain how they form?
1. Surface currents: winds and tides
2. Subsurface currents: caused by changes in density. Denser the water= more it sinks
What is the huge conveyor belt that regulates the ocean currents called?
What is the thermohaline circulation responsible for?
Major transfers of heat around the world. Regulates climate on earth.
What is hydraulic energy?
The force of moving water generating electricity.
Why are the advantages to hydraulic energy?
2. Emits very little greenhouses gases
3. Disadvantage:CAN RELEASE MERCURY CONTAMINATING FISH
What is pack ice?
Floating ice in the ocean near the north and south poles
What are glaciers?
Glaciers do not float on water, they are attached to land and are formed by compressed snow.
Why do melting glaciers add to the rise in sea level but pack ice doesn’t?
Glaciers are not part of the ocean waters they are on land.pack ice is already part of the ocean because it floats on it.
Explain the greenhouse effect.
A natural process that allows the earth to keep heat it receives from the sun by 1. Absorbing suns UV rays in the lithosphere 2. Once ground is heated it releases infrared into the atmosphere and some into space 3. Greenhouse gases trap infrared rays heating the earth even more
How does global warming happen?what are the consequences?
When human activity emits too many greenhouse gases, it can cause the atmosphere to trap too much heat from the sun and can lead to changes in patterns of climate,precipitation and wind
Name some advantages and disadvantages of wind energy.
- does not emit greenhouse gases
- sound pollution
- impossible to predict
What is the formula to find concentration?
Expressed in g/l
How can you express concentration in a percent?
Given the example 12g of coffee is dissolved in 250Ml of water. What is the coffees concentration in percent?
X = 12g
Solve for x, x is your percent
Express the following in parts per million.
5g/250ml = ? In ppm
5g = X
250ml 1 000 000
Solve for x
What is an electrolyte?
When dissolved in water allows an electrical current to flow though.
How does electrolytic disassociation work?
When an electrolyte dissolved in water it separates in two ions (1 positive, 1 negative). When electrodes are inserted into the solution the positive ions move towards the negative electrodes and the negative ions move towards the positive electrodes. This generates an electrical current.
Electrolytes only split when it has 1 one of 3 substances. What are those 3 substances?
What is the formula for salt?
Metal (+)+ non metal (-)
In front of equation.
Salts are neutral
What is the formula for Acid?
H + non metal
At beginning of equation
Formula for bases?
Metal + OH
At beginning of equation
What is a neutralization?
The combination of acid and base
What is ion?
An atom with a charge. If it gains it becomes negative, if it loses a charge it becomes positive.
What is a group/columns in the periodic table?
Verticale= shows valence electrons
What are period/rows on a periodic table?
Horizontal= shows electron shells
What column are alkali metals found in? Name some of their characteristics.
1. Soft and highly reactive
2. Store in oil because they react to the moisture in the air
3. Combine to form a compound
What column are alkali earth metals found in? Name some of their characteristics.
Found in column 2
1. Malleable and reactive
2. Can be exposed to air
3. Combine to form compounds
What column are halogens found in? Name some of their characteristics.
Found in the second to last column
2. Combine to for a compound
What column are noble gases found in? Name some of their characteristics.
Found in last column
2. Exists alone
How do you express the Rutherford-Bohr atomic model?
1.You look at the period and see how many shells it contains.
2. Check the atomic number( that is how many electrons you put)
3. Draw the electrons on the shells(* Remember only 2 electrons on the first shell, 8 on the second one)
How do you express the Lewis notation?
ONLY VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE ILLUSTRATED. (Valence electrons found in the group/ column of a period table.)
What is the formula for energy efficiency?
E.E= Useful energy
A microwave produces 125000 J of radiation energy and 350 000 J of electrical energy. What is the energy efficiency?
How many valence electrons does barium have?
(Check periodic table)
How many shells does iodine have?
(Check periodic table)
What does the A horizon contain?
A mixture of humus and minerals that dissolve in water
What is bedrock?
It is the starting point of soil formation
What does the O horizon contain?
Humus (organic matter)
What does the B horizon contain?
Composed of small minerals, tree roots develope here
What does C horizon contain?
Disintegrated Parent rock
How does photosynthesis play a role in the carbon cycle?
Plants use solar energy to capture carbon
——>changes in to glucose so plants can grow
How does respiration play a role in the carbon cycle?
Living organisms exhale releasing co2
How does ingestion play a role in the carbon cycle?
Animals eat plants to get carbon
How does decomposition of waste play a role in the carbon cycle?
Carbon gets eliminated you urine,feces, death...then gets decomposed
How do fossil fuels play a role in the carbon cycle?
Dead organism fall to the ocean floor,getting covered by sediment.the pressure turn them into coal or oil
I occur over a long period of time... what type of combustion am I?
I occur in a very short amount of time but release a lot of energy... What type of combustion am I?
Types of energy
I am energy from electrons in motion... what am I?
Types of energy
I produce energy from moving water... what am I?
Types of energy
I am energy derived from motion... What am I?
I am energy from the sun... What am I?
I am energy from moving air... what am I?
I am energy obtained from moving particles... what am I?
I can be found in the electromagnetic spectrum...what type of energy am I?