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Flashcards in All y’all better pass! Deck (76):
1

Lithosphere

What is the lithosphere?

Crust and the top most part of the upper mantle

2

Lithosphere

Name the soil layers (5 layers).

1. O horizon: Contains organic matter (humus)
2. A horizon: Mixture of humus and minerals that dissolve in water
3. B horizon: Composed of small minerals,tree roots develop here
4. C horizon: formed by disintegrated parent rock
5. Bedrock: starting point of soil formation

3

Lithosphere

What is permafrost?

Frozen soil found in polar regions.During the summer the top layer thaws, plants grow during a short period of time.

4

Lithosphere

What are some consequences of melting permafrost?

1. Land slides
2. Impacting structure of houses
3. Intensifying greenhouse gas effect( when permafrost melts the organic matter in it decomposes, releasing carbon dioxide and methane)

5

Lithosphere
Energy ressources

How are fossil fuels created?

- Oil and natural gas come from marine animals and algae. When they died they sink to the bottom and are covered with sediment. Pressure turned them into oil.

- Coal is formed the same way but in swamps

6

Lithosphere
Energy ressources

Consequences of fossil fuels.

1. Non renewable
2. Burning fossil fuels release carbon dioxide and methane (main causes of climate change)

7

Lithosphere
Energy ressources

What is uranium?

A radio active element that produces a large amount of energy.

8

Lithosphere
Energy ressources

Consequences of uranium?

1. Non renewable
2. Produces a large amount of energy, if a radioactive explosion happens material and equipment stay radioactive for 100 of years.

9

Lithosphere

What is combustion and what are the elements needed for combustion to happen?

Combustion is a release of a large amount of energy resulting in a something burning ( fire ). The elements needed for combustion are:
-a fuel
-oxygen
-heat

10

Lithosphere

Name and explain the 3 types of combustion.

1. Rapid: in a short period of time releases a lot of energy( camp fire)
2. Spontaneous: fuel reaches ignition temperature without an outside source (forest fire)
3. Slow: occurs over a long period of time (rust)

11

What Is the carbon cycle?

Describes all exchanges of carbon on earth

12

Name and explain all 9 of the carbon exchanges.

1. Photosynthesis: plants use solar energy to capture co2, changes into glucose plants use for energy to grow.
2.Ingestion: animals eat plants to get carbon
3. Respiration: living organism exhale releasing co2
4. Décomposition of waste: carbon eliminated by urine, feces, death... then get decomposed
5. Forest fire: releases carbon through burning trees
6. Shells and skeletons: carbon dissolved in water reacts with calcium forming shells and skeletons of marine organism
7. Carbonate rock: the calcium carbonate from shells and skeletons fall to the bottom of the ocean and get covered by sediment turning it into carbonate rock.
8. Volcanic eruptions: carbonate rock melts when in contact with magma returning carbon to atmosphere.
9. Fossil fuels: dead organism fall to ocean floor and get covered with sediment, carbon changes into coal or oil.

13

Hydrosphere

What are two other words for catchment area?

1. Drainage basin
2. Watershed

14

Hydrosphere

What is a catchment area?

An area of land whose lakes and rivers all flow to the same larger body of water.

15

Hydrosphere
Catchment area

What causes the water to flow the same direction?

The natural slope of the land causes water to flow in the same direction

16

Hydrosphere

What natural phenomenas (5 things) can affect how water flows inside a catchment area?

1. Topography: shape,slope
2. Geology: type,depth, structure of rock
3. Climate: amount of rain or snowfall, winds and temperature
4. Vegetation: density and diversity
5. Human interference: agricultural,industrial and urban development

17

Hydrosphere

What is salinity?

The amount of salt dissolved in a liquid

18

Hydrosphere

How does the ocean water become salty?

From the seawater constantly smashing the rocks into each other, chipping them away and adding mineral salts to the water

19

Hydrosphere

Why does salt water have a greater density than freshwater?

Salt water contains more sodium chloride atoms that add to its mass

20

Hydrosphere

Near the poles, how do glaciers affect the salinity of the water?

Melting glaciers dilute the seawater and reduce its concentration of salt.

21

Hydrosphere

Why does the water near the equator have a higher salinity?

The heat makes water evaporate faster, leaving the salt behind, thus raising the concentration of salt.

22

Hydrosphere

How does the ocean circulate?

The ocean is in constant circulation due to waves,tides and currents

23

Hydrosphere

The ocean has 2 types of currents. What are they called and explain how they form?

1. Surface currents: winds and tides
2. Subsurface currents: caused by changes in density. Denser the water= more it sinks

24

Hydrosphere

What is the huge conveyor belt that regulates the ocean currents called?

Thermohaline circulation

25

Hydrosphere

What is the thermohaline circulation responsible for?

Major transfers of heat around the world. Regulates climate on earth.

26

Hydrosphere

What is hydraulic energy?

The force of moving water generating electricity.

27

Hydrosphere

Why are the advantages to hydraulic energy?

1. renewable
2. Emits very little greenhouses gases
3. Disadvantage:CAN RELEASE MERCURY CONTAMINATING FISH

28

Hydrosphere

What is pack ice?

Floating ice in the ocean near the north and south poles

29

Hydrosphere

What are glaciers?

Glaciers do not float on water, they are attached to land and are formed by compressed snow.

30

Hydrosphere

Why do melting glaciers add to the rise in sea level but pack ice doesn’t?

Glaciers are not part of the ocean waters they are on land.pack ice is already part of the ocean because it floats on it.

31

Atmosphere

Explain the greenhouse effect.

A natural process that allows the earth to keep heat it receives from the sun by 1. Absorbing suns UV rays in the lithosphere 2. Once ground is heated it releases infrared into the atmosphere and some into space 3. Greenhouse gases trap infrared rays heating the earth even more

32

Atmosphere

How does global warming happen?what are the consequences?

When human activity emits too many greenhouse gases, it can cause the atmosphere to trap too much heat from the sun and can lead to changes in patterns of climate,precipitation and wind

33

Atmosphere

Name some advantages and disadvantages of wind energy.

Adv:
- renewable
- does not emit greenhouse gases
Dsv:
- sound pollution
- impossible to predict

34

Concentration

What is the formula to find concentration?

C=mass(grams)
——
Volume (liter)

Expressed in g/l

35

Concentration

How can you express concentration in a percent?
Given the example 12g of coffee is dissolved in 250Ml of water. What is the coffees concentration in percent?

X = 12g
— —-
100ml 250ml
Solve for x, x is your percent

36

Concentration
Express the following in parts per million.

5g/250ml = ? In ppm

5g = X
—— ——-
250ml 1 000 000

Solve for x

37

What is an electrolyte?

When dissolved in water allows an electrical current to flow though.

38

How does electrolytic disassociation work?

When an electrolyte dissolved in water it separates in two ions (1 positive, 1 negative). When electrodes are inserted into the solution the positive ions move towards the negative electrodes and the negative ions move towards the positive electrodes. This generates an electrical current.

39

Electrolytes only split when it has 1 one of 3 substances. What are those 3 substances?

1. Acids
2. Bases
3.salts

40

Electrolytes

What is the formula for salt?

Metal (+)+ non metal (-)
In front of equation.
Salts are neutral

41

Electrolytes

What is the formula for Acid?

H + non metal
At beginning of equation

42

Electrolytes

Formula for bases?

Metal + OH
At beginning of equation

43

Electrolytes

What is a neutralization?

The combination of acid and base

44

What is ion?

An atom with a charge. If it gains it becomes negative, if it loses a charge it becomes positive.

45

What is a group/columns in the periodic table?

Verticale= shows valence electrons

46

What are period/rows on a periodic table?

Horizontal= shows electron shells

47

Periodic Table

What column are alkali metals found in? Name some of their characteristics.

First column

1. Soft and highly reactive
2. Store in oil because they react to the moisture in the air
3. Combine to form a compound

48

Periodic table

What column are alkali earth metals found in? Name some of their characteristics.

Found in column 2

1. Malleable and reactive
2. Can be exposed to air
3. Combine to form compounds

49

Periodic table

What column are halogens found in? Name some of their characteristics.

Found in the second to last column

1. Nonmetals
2. Combine to for a compound
3. Disinfectants

50

Periodic table

What column are noble gases found in? Name some of their characteristics.

Found in last column

1. Stable
2. Exists alone

51

How do you express the Rutherford-Bohr atomic model?

1.You look at the period and see how many shells it contains.
2. Check the atomic number( that is how many electrons you put)
3. Draw the electrons on the shells(* Remember only 2 electrons on the first shell, 8 on the second one)

52

How do you express the Lewis notation?

ONLY VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE ILLUSTRATED. (Valence electrons found in the group/ column of a period table.)

53

What is the formula for energy efficiency?

E.E= Useful energy
—————— x100
Energy consumed

54

A microwave produces 125000 J of radiation energy and 350 000 J of electrical energy. What is the energy efficiency?

125 000
————x100
350 000
= 35.7%

55

How many valence electrons does barium have?

(Check periodic table)

2

56

How many shells does iodine have?

(Check periodic table)

5

57

Lithosphere

What does the A horizon contain?

A mixture of humus and minerals that dissolve in water

58

Lithosphere

What is bedrock?

It is the starting point of soil formation

59

Lithosphere

What does the O horizon contain?

Humus (organic matter)

60

Lithosphere

What does the B horizon contain?

Composed of small minerals, tree roots develope here

61

Lithosphere

What does C horizon contain?

Disintegrated Parent rock

62

How does photosynthesis play a role in the carbon cycle?

Plants use solar energy to capture carbon
——>changes in to glucose so plants can grow

63

How does respiration play a role in the carbon cycle?

Living organisms exhale releasing co2

64

How does ingestion play a role in the carbon cycle?

Animals eat plants to get carbon

65

How does decomposition of waste play a role in the carbon cycle?

Carbon gets eliminated you urine,feces, death...then gets decomposed

66

How do fossil fuels play a role in the carbon cycle?

Dead organism fall to the ocean floor,getting covered by sediment.the pressure turn them into coal or oil

67

I occur over a long period of time... what type of combustion am I?

Slow

68

I occur in a very short amount of time but release a lot of energy... What type of combustion am I?

Rapide

69

Types of energy

I am energy from electrons in motion... what am I?

Electrical energy

70

Types of energy

I produce energy from moving water... what am I?

Hydraulic energy

71

Types of energy

I am energy derived from motion... What am I?

Mechanical energy

72

I am energy from the sun... What am I?

Solar energy

73

I am energy from moving air... what am I?

Wind energy

74

I am energy obtained from moving particles... what am I?

Thermal energy

75

I can be found in the electromagnetic spectrum...what type of energy am I?

Radiation energy

76

I am an energy that is found in the bonds between atoms... What am I?

Chemical energy