Flashcards in Amazon Rainforest Deck (29):
How much of the carbon stored in the planet's biomass is in the Amazon rainforest?
(300 billion trees)
How many different species are in the Amazon?
How many countries does the Amazon reach into?
What is the average rainfall in the Amazon?
3,000mm per year
Max: 6,000mm per year
What percentage of rainfall does not reach the ground?
What happens to it?
Intercepted by the forest canopy, so re-evaporated into the atmosphere
How does the rainfall reach the ground?
What happens once it reaches the ground?
Some travels by runoff to the rivers
Some infiltrates the ground and is taken up through the roots- stored or leaves through transpiration
Some goes into groundwater
The Amazon river equates to around ___ of the freshwater entering the oceans each day
How much of the Amazon has been lost to deforestation in the last 50 years?
What percentage of Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions were a result of deforestation?
How does slash and burn impact on the water cycle?
Burning increases number of condensation nuclei- very small clouds that are too small to precipitate- reduces rainfall (up to 20%)
Less rainfall = vegetation remaining dies, less water stored in the biosphere
Rainfall no longer intercepted- increases surface runoff and flood risk
Slash and burn reduces the porosity of the soil- increased erosion of the surface- sedimentation of the river- reduces the bankfull capacity
When forests are burnt, how much carbon is lost?
Impacts of deforestation on the carbon cycle
Less carbon stored in the biosphere
Rainfall washes away the top soil, less carbon stored in the lithosphere- goes to the hydrosphere instead
Now a source rather than a sink
What percentage of wood is carbon?
Why are trees in the Amazon growing and dying at a faster pace?
Increased global temperature
How much carbon does the Amazon absorb and emit each year on average?
What happened in 2015?
2.2 billion tonnes absorbed
1.9 billion emitted
In 2015 it emitted more than absorbed
What natural factors impact the Amazon's carbon stores?
Temperature changes (i.e. interglacials and glacials)
What human factors impact the Amazon's carbon stores?
Fossil fuel combustion
Agriculture (80% of deforested land used for agriculture)
A 2009 study on the Amazon concluded that a 2 degree temperature rise would kill ___ of vegetation
4 degree rise?
85% (4 degree)
Example of forest reserve created
Para rainforest reserve
(covers an area larger than England)
Why is the creation of national parks and forest reserves mitigating against climate change?
Carbon remains stored in the biosphere
Logging can be monitored and prevented in these parks
What does the Brazilian Forest Code state?
Landowners have to keep between 50-80% of their land as forest
How many hectares of forest does Peru plan to restore by 2020?
3.2 million hectares
Form of reforestation
What is important to ensure when areas are reforested?
Native species are planted so the local water and carbon cycles can return to their original states
What does sustainable forest management involve?
Only taking the older trees in an area, and converting their wood into furniture so the carbon remains stored
Seedlings of native species are planted, to maintain a high level of biodiversity
Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organisation
Trying to reverse the loss of forest cover through sustainable forest management
Monitors and prevents illegal logging
Began in 1995, 8 countries
Manage rainforest sustainability at national and global levels
Investment in research, education and technology
Create policies and legal framework to protect the rainforest
The Latin American Technical Cooperation Network on Watershed Management
Promotes the rational use of resources
Hopes to reduce deforestation as wood will be used more sparingly