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Geography- Water and Carbon Cycles > Amazon Rainforest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amazon Rainforest Deck (42):
1

How much of the carbon stored in the planet's biomass is in the Amazon rainforest?

20%

2

How many different species are in the Amazon?

15,000

3

How many countries does the Amazon reach into?

9

4

What is the average rainfall in the Amazon?
Peak rainfall?

3,000mm per year
Max: 6,000mm per year

5

What percentage of rainfall does not reach the ground?
What happens to it?

75%
Intercepted by the forest canopy, so re-evaporated into the atmosphere

6

How does the rainfall reach the ground?
What happens once it reaches the ground?

Stem flow
Runoff to the rivers
Some infiltrates ground, taken up through roots- stored or leaves through transpiration
Some goes into groundwater

7

The Amazon river equates to around ___ of the freshwater entering the oceans each day

15%

8

How much of the Amazon has been lost to deforestation in the last 50 years?

17%

9

What percentage of Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions were a result of deforestation?

75%

10

Natural Factors impacting Water and Carbon Cycles

Droughts
Disease
Temperature Change (glacial / interglacial)
Wildfires

11

Drought impact on Water Cycle

Loss of biospheric water
Decreased evapotranspiration
Wildfires
Impermeable ground = decreased infiltration and increased runoff

12

Drought impact on Carbon Cycle

Vegetation dries out and dies
Increased decomposition, more carbon in lithosphere
Wildfires

13

Disease impact on Water Cycle

Areas with no vegetation- reduced interception and increased runoff
Less biospheric water
Reduced evapotranspiration, reduced cloud cover, increased drought risk

14

Disease impact on Carbon Cycle

Loss of vegetation, reduced biospheric carbon
Organic material resulting will decompose- increases lithospheric store
Soil bare- washed into hydrosphere

15

Why does disease travel quickly in the Amazon?

Trees in close proximity

16

Temperature Change impact on Water Cycle

Decreased biospheric water if glacial
Ground freezes- impermeable, reduces infiltration and increases runoff

17

Temperature Change impacts on Carbon Cycle

If glacial plant growth stops, and plants die, less biospheric carbon
Decreased photosynthesis, increased atmospheric CO2
Respiration will also decrease, causing atmospheric carbon to fall

18

What can temperature change be caused by?

Super-volcanic eruptions

19

Wildfire impacts on Water Cycle

Increased condensation nuclei- clouds thinner (can lead to up to 20% less precipitation)
Biospheric water store lost
Increased runoff as no interception
Decreased evapotranspiration, increased drought

20

Wildfire impact on Carbon Cycle

Carbon rich ash in soil- increased lithospheric store
Plant species not adapted to carbon rich soils, no growth, no leaf litter, no decomposition
Soils not protected- washed into hydrosphere

21

Natural Causes of Wildfires

Global temperature increases
Increased droughts, make wildfires more common

22

Human Factors impacting Water and Carbon Cycles

Deforestation
Agriculture
Fossil Fuels / Climate Change
Wildfires

23

Deforestation impacts on Water Cycle

Increased condensation nuclei, thinner clouds, less precipitation
Biospheric water store lost
Increased runoff as no interception
Reduced evapotranspiration, reducing cloud cover

24

Deforestation impacts on Carbon Cycle

75% of Brazil's greenhouse gases
Roots no longer hold soil together, top layer washed into rivers
Less leaf litter, less decomposition

25

What % of deforestation is for agriculture?

80%

26

Agriculture impacts on Water Cycle

Water use controlled- abstraction
Less vegetation, less interception and root uptake- increased runoff
Cattle compact ground, reduced infiltration

27

Wildfire impacts on Water Cycle

Increased condensation nuclei- clouds thinner (can lead to up to 20% less precipitation)
Biospheric water store lost
Increased runoff as no interception
Decreased evapotranspiration, increased drought

28

Fossil Fuel and Climate impact on Carbon Cycle

Increased chance of wildfires
4 degree temp increase would kill 85% of vegetation- less carbon in biosphere, less decomposition, less photosynthesis

29

Natural Causes of Wildfires

Global temperature increases
Increased droughts, make wildfires more common

30

Human Factors impacting Water and Carbon Cycles

Deforestation
Agriculture
Fossil Fuels / Climate Change
Wildfires

31

Human causes of Wildfires

Slash and burn
Accidental
Arson

32

Deforestation impacts on Water Cycle

Increased condensation nuclei, thinner clouds, less precipitation
Biospheric water store lost
Increased runoff as no interception
Reduced evapotranspiration, reducing cloud cover

33

Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organisation

8 countries
Investing in education and research
Environmental protection
Reverse loss of forest cover though sustainable forest management:
Monitor illegal logging
Restore forests

34

Agriculture impacts on Water Cycle

Water use controlled- abstraction
Less vegetation, less interception and root uptake- increased runoff
Cattle compact ground, reduced infiltration

35

Agriculture impact on Carbon Cycle

Machinery = fossil fuels
Cattle ruminate- methane
Ploughing increases decomposition
Livestock and cattle are temporary stores of carbon

36

Fossil Fuel and Climate Change impact on Water Cycle

Temperature increases- drought
Peak rainfall decreases
Less vegetation as not adapted to conditions
Wildfires

37

Brazilian Forest Code

Landowners keep 50-80% of land kept forested

38

Reforestation

Peru will restore 3.2 million hectares by 2020
Important that native trees restored so local water and carbon cycles return to original state

39

Creation of Forest Reserves

Para Rainforest Reserve
Covers an area larger than England
Logging monitored and prevented

40

Selective Logging

Only oldest trees felled
Maintains forest structure
Soil not exposed

41

Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organisation

8 countries
Reverse loss of forest cover though sustainable forest management:
Monitor illegal logging
Restore forests

42

TARAPOTO

8 countries
Investing in education and research
Environmental protection