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Geography- Water and Carbon Cycles > Amazon Rainforest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amazon Rainforest Deck (29):
1

How much of the carbon stored in the planet's biomass is in the Amazon rainforest?

20%
(300 billion trees)

2

How many different species are in the Amazon?

15,000

3

How many countries does the Amazon reach into?

9

4

What is the average rainfall in the Amazon?
Peak rainfall?

3,000mm per year
Max: 6,000mm per year

5

What percentage of rainfall does not reach the ground?
What happens to it?

75%
Intercepted by the forest canopy, so re-evaporated into the atmosphere

6

How does the rainfall reach the ground?
What happens once it reaches the ground?

Stem flow
Some travels by runoff to the rivers
Some infiltrates the ground and is taken up through the roots- stored or leaves through transpiration
Some goes into groundwater

7

The Amazon river equates to around ___ of the freshwater entering the oceans each day

15%

8

How much of the Amazon has been lost to deforestation in the last 50 years?

17%

9

What percentage of Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions were a result of deforestation?

75%

10

How does slash and burn impact on the water cycle?

Burning increases number of condensation nuclei- very small clouds that are too small to precipitate- reduces rainfall (up to 20%)
Less rainfall = vegetation remaining dies, less water stored in the biosphere
Rainfall no longer intercepted- increases surface runoff and flood risk
Slash and burn reduces the porosity of the soil- increased erosion of the surface- sedimentation of the river- reduces the bankfull capacity

11

When forests are burnt, how much carbon is lost?

30-60%

12

Impacts of deforestation on the carbon cycle

Less carbon stored in the biosphere
Rainfall washes away the top soil, less carbon stored in the lithosphere- goes to the hydrosphere instead
Now a source rather than a sink

13

What percentage of wood is carbon?

50%

14

Why are trees in the Amazon growing and dying at a faster pace?

Increased global temperature

15

How much carbon does the Amazon absorb and emit each year on average?
What happened in 2015?

2.2 billion tonnes absorbed
1.9 billion emitted
In 2015 it emitted more than absorbed

16

What natural factors impact the Amazon's carbon stores?

Wildfires
Droughts
Temperature changes (i.e. interglacials and glacials)

17

What human factors impact the Amazon's carbon stores?

Deforestation
Fossil fuel combustion
Agriculture (80% of deforested land used for agriculture)

18

A 2009 study on the Amazon concluded that a 2 degree temperature rise would kill ___ of vegetation
4 degree rise?

20-40%
85% (4 degree)

19

Example of forest reserve created

Para rainforest reserve
(covers an area larger than England)

20

Why is the creation of national parks and forest reserves mitigating against climate change?

Carbon remains stored in the biosphere
Logging can be monitored and prevented in these parks

21

What does the Brazilian Forest Code state?

Landowners have to keep between 50-80% of their land as forest

22

How many hectares of forest does Peru plan to restore by 2020?

3.2 million hectares
Form of reforestation

23

What is important to ensure when areas are reforested?

Native species are planted so the local water and carbon cycles can return to their original states

24

What does sustainable forest management involve?

Only taking the older trees in an area, and converting their wood into furniture so the carbon remains stored
Seedlings of native species are planted, to maintain a high level of biodiversity

25

Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organisation

8 countries
Trying to reverse the loss of forest cover through sustainable forest management
Monitors and prevents illegal logging

26

TARAPOTO

Began in 1995, 8 countries
Manage rainforest sustainability at national and global levels

27

TARAPOTO priorities

Investment in research, education and technology
Create policies and legal framework to protect the rainforest

28

The Latin American Technical Cooperation Network on Watershed Management

Promotes the rational use of resources
Hopes to reduce deforestation as wood will be used more sparingly

29

Why is selective logging encouraged?

Protects the soil as most of the canopy remains so it is not exposed
Forest can regenerate so the impact on the water and carbon cycle is minimal