Pickering Beck Flashcards Preview

Geography- Water and Carbon Cycles > Pickering Beck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pickering Beck Deck (27):

Where is Pickering?

North Yorkshire
A market town


Which river is Pickering Beck a tributary to?

River Derwent


When has Pickering been flooded?

1999, 2000, 2007


How much damage did the 2007 floods cause?

£2.1 billion
Flooded 85 homes, shops and the A170


Why were many of the residents not prepared for the 2007 floods?

A lot of them had never been flooded before
Caused by a day of torrential rain- little preparation time


What is the Beck's catchment like?

Gritstone and limestone
Drains the North Yorkshire Moors, mixed land use
Upper catchment is moorland
Lower catchment is arable


Why is the gritstone partly accountable for the flashy hydrographs of the Beck?

It slowly absorbs water- increases runoff


Why is the steep topography partly responsible for the flashy hydrographs of the Beck?

Rapid runoff from the steep hillsides


How is the agricultural use of the area partly responsible for the flooding?

Overgrazing has compacted the soil- less water can infiltrate


How is urbanisation partly responsible for the flooding?

More impermeable surfaces i.e. tarmac- increases runoff
Drainage systems mean water from precipitation quickly enters the river channel


How is moorland and forest drainage partly responsible for the flooding?

Drainage systems increase the speed at which water reaches the river channel- reducing the lag time


What status is the Beck's water quality failing to meet?

'good water' from the Water Framework Directive


Why is the Beck's water quality not meeting the expected standards?

Chemicals farmers use leak into the river


What policy has the Pickering Flood Management Scheme adopted in 2007?

'Slowing the Flow'
Aims to reduce the peak flow of the beck


Why is a whole catchment approach being adopted to manage flooding?

As it is more sustainable that isolated projects


How much is the flood management project cost?

£3.2 million


Which organisations are involved in the flood management project?

Forest Research
Environment Agency


What other benefits should the project have?

Increasing biodiversity
Improve water quality
Increase community involvement


Why was the Beck's catchment chosen for the project?

Over a third owned by North York Moors National Park and Forestry Commission- easier to instigate change


Which university's computer model has helped the project?

Simulates how tributaries will react to precipitation after intervention- shows where intervention would worsen the problem


Strategies used: Blocking moorland drains

187 heather bale dams installed in moorland drains
Aims to improve water retention


Strategies used: Educating farmers, landowners and homeowners

Teaches them how to avoid rapid overland flow
Farmers taught to move cattle feeders regularly to stop the ground being compacted


Strategies used: No burn zones

Heather burning increases runoff as less interception
10m wide no burn zones established along the main watercourse in the Beck's upper catchment


Strategies used: Woodland creation

Helps protect soils from erosion, and increases infiltration rates- reducing runoff
15 hectares of woodland have been planted


Strategies used: Woodland restoration

Woodland has been restored in the floodplains
Helps reduce peak flows through interception and roots taking up water
Trees planted can withstand the wet conditions of the floodplain and help drain it more quickly after a flood


Advantages of the management scheme?

Cheaper and more environmentally friendly than hard engineering
Risk of flooding in Pickering reduced from 25% to 4%


Disadvantages of the management scheme?

Natural flood defences can't withstand large storms as they are overwhelmed by flood water
Only reason they seem effective is because there has been less rainfall in the last few years