Flashcards in Pickering Beck Deck (29):
Where is Pickering?
A market town
Which river is Pickering Beck a tributary to?
When has Pickering been flooded?
1999, 2000, 2007
How much damage did the 2007 floods cause?
Flooded 85 homes, shops and the A170
Why were many of the residents not prepared for the 2007 floods?
A lot of them had never been flooded before
Caused by a day of torrential rain- little preparation time
What is the Beck's catchment like?
Gritstone and limestone
Drains the North Yorkshire Moors, mixed land use
Upper catchment is moorland
Lower catchment is arable + some pastoral
Causes of Flooding: Geology
It slowly absorbs water- increases runoff
Causes of Flooding: Steep topography
Rapid runoff from the steep hillsides
Causes of Flooding: Agriculture
Overgrazing = compacted soil- less water can infiltrate
Causes of Flooding: Urbanisation
More impermeable surfaces i.e. tarmac- increases runoff
Drainage systems mean water quickly enters the river channel
Causes of Flooding: Moorland and Forest Drainage
Drainage systems increase speed at which water reaches the river channel- reducing lag time
What status is the Beck's water quality failing to meet?
Water Framework Directive
Why is the Beck's water quality not meeting the expected standards?
Chemicals farmers use leak into the river
What policy has the Pickering Flood Management Scheme adopted in 2007?
'Slowing the Flow'
Why is a whole catchment approach being adopted to manage flooding?
As it is more sustainable than isolated projects
How much is the flood management project cost?
Which organisations are involved in the flood management project?
Which university's computer model has helped the project?
Simulates how tributaries will react after intervention- shows where intervention would worsen the problem
Strategies used: Blocking moorland drains
187 heather bale dams installed in moorland drains
Aims to improve water retention, decreasing runoff
Strategies used: Educating farmers
Farmers taught to move cattle feeders regularly to stop the ground being compacted
Strategies used: No burn zones
Heather burning increases runoff as less interception
10m wide no burn zones established along the main watercourse in the Beck's upper catchment
Strategies used: Woodland creation on Farmland
Helps protect soils from erosion, and increases infiltration rates- reducing runoff
15 hectares of woodland have been planted on farms
Helps reduce time farmland is submerged in water- increasing yields
Advantages of the management scheme?
Cheaper and more environmentally friendly than hard engineering
Risk of flooding in Pickering reduced from 25% to 4%
Disadvantages of the management scheme?
Natural flood defences can't withstand large storms as they are overwhelmed by flood water
Only reason they seem effective is because there has been less rainfall in the last few years
Natural Causes of Flooding
Geology and Soil Type
Human Causes of Flooding
Moorland and Forest Drainage
Causes of Flooding: Rainfall
Heavy rainfall- river quickly exceeds bankfull capacity
Prolonged- saturates soils
Other benefits of the Project
Improving water quality
Increasing community involvement