Pickering Beck Flashcards Preview

Geography- Water and Carbon Cycles > Pickering Beck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pickering Beck Deck (29):
1

Where is Pickering?

North Yorkshire
A market town

2

Which river is Pickering Beck a tributary to?

River Derwent

3

When has Pickering been flooded?

1999, 2000, 2007

4

How much damage did the 2007 floods cause?

£2.1 billion
Flooded 85 homes, shops and the A170

5

Why were many of the residents not prepared for the 2007 floods?

A lot of them had never been flooded before
Caused by a day of torrential rain- little preparation time

6

What is the Beck's catchment like?

68km2
Gritstone and limestone
Drains the North Yorkshire Moors, mixed land use
Upper catchment is moorland
Lower catchment is arable + some pastoral

7

Causes of Flooding: Geology

It slowly absorbs water- increases runoff

8

Causes of Flooding: Steep topography

Rapid runoff from the steep hillsides
Little infiltration

9

Causes of Flooding: Agriculture

Overgrazing = compacted soil- less water can infiltrate

10

Causes of Flooding: Urbanisation

More impermeable surfaces i.e. tarmac- increases runoff
Drainage systems mean water quickly enters the river channel

11

Causes of Flooding: Moorland and Forest Drainage

Drainage systems increase speed at which water reaches the river channel- reducing lag time

12

What status is the Beck's water quality failing to meet?

'good water'
Water Framework Directive

13

Why is the Beck's water quality not meeting the expected standards?

Chemicals farmers use leak into the river

14

What policy has the Pickering Flood Management Scheme adopted in 2007?

'Slowing the Flow'

15

Why is a whole catchment approach being adopted to manage flooding?

As it is more sustainable than isolated projects

16

How much is the flood management project cost?

£3.2 million

17

Which organisations are involved in the flood management project?

Forest Research
Environment Agency

18

Which university's computer model has helped the project?
How?

Durham
Simulates how tributaries will react after intervention- shows where intervention would worsen the problem

19

Strategies used: Blocking moorland drains

187 heather bale dams installed in moorland drains
Aims to improve water retention, decreasing runoff

20

Strategies used: Educating farmers

Farmers taught to move cattle feeders regularly to stop the ground being compacted
Increases infiltration

21

Strategies used: No burn zones

Heather burning increases runoff as less interception
10m wide no burn zones established along the main watercourse in the Beck's upper catchment

22

Strategies used: Woodland creation on Farmland

Helps protect soils from erosion, and increases infiltration rates- reducing runoff
15 hectares of woodland have been planted on farms
Helps reduce time farmland is submerged in water- increasing yields

23

Advantages of the management scheme?

Cheaper and more environmentally friendly than hard engineering
Risk of flooding in Pickering reduced from 25% to 4%

24

Disadvantages of the management scheme?

Natural flood defences can't withstand large storms as they are overwhelmed by flood water
Only reason they seem effective is because there has been less rainfall in the last few years

25

Natural Causes of Flooding

Rainfall
Geology and Soil Type
Relief

26

Human Causes of Flooding

Agriculture
Urbanisation
Moorland and Forest Drainage

27

Causes of Flooding: Rainfall

Heavy rainfall- river quickly exceeds bankfull capacity
Prolonged- saturates soils

28

Other benefits of the Project

Increasing biodiversity
Improving water quality
Increasing community involvement

29

Strategies used: Construction of low level Bunds

Channel artificially constricted
Forces water onto flood plains in upper catchment
Once peak flow passes, water drains back into river channel
i.e. Newtondale