American History: 1.2 The quest for Civil Rights, 1917-80 Flashcards Preview

Edexcel AS/A Level History Route F: Searching for Rights and Freedoms in the 20th Century > American History: 1.2 The quest for Civil Rights, 1917-80 > Flashcards

Flashcards in American History: 1.2 The quest for Civil Rights, 1917-80 Deck (75)
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On 31 January 1865, Congress passed the 13th Amendment to the Constitution...

Abolishing slavery in the US


On 9 July 1868, the 14th Amendment made...

All people born or naturalised in the USA, including those who had been salves, US citizens


On 3 February 1870, the 15th Amendment declared that...

All US citizens had the same voting rights


What happened to Fannie Lou Hamer in Rulesville, Mississippi in 1962?

She went to register to vote and was sacked from her job and told that people weren't 'ready' for her to do this because she was black


What was life like for black African Americans after the end of the war?

They still faced discrimination, segregation and violence. They were expected to live in the worst parts of the town. They were "last hired, first fired" and were expected to do low paid jobs.


In 1913, President Wilson even introduced what into government offices and the White House?



In 1919, there were about ... anti-black race riots, often set off by police injustice, in which hundreds were killed.



The worst of these "Red Summer" riots was in



.......................... was a famous black American who advocated accepting separation

Booker T. Washington


What were the Jim Crow Laws about?



Examples of Jim Crow Laws

Where to sit on a tram
Where to live
Where to send your children to school
What public facilities you can use


What factors discouraged black people from voting?

Literacy tests
All white elections
Violence from white people


By 1917, the number of black Americans registering to vote had dropped considerably. In Louisiana, it fell from 130,334 in 1896 to what in 1904?



In 1896, in Plessy vs Ferguson, the Court ruled that segregation was possible as long as it was...

"Separate but equal"


Between 1915 and 1930, there were lynchings of ... white men and ..... black men, mostly in the south.

65, 579



Not necessarily for committing a crime
Southern lynchings often advertised beforehand
Photos emerged of crowds of men and women happily smiling beside the corpses


Emmett Till

In 1955, 14 y/o Emmett Till, visiting relations from Chicago, was lynched for talking to a white woman and allegedly asking her on a date. He didn't understand the southern rules.



White supremacist organisation
Revived in 1915
Against non-WASPS and black people especially
Members lived all over the USA
By 1925, estimates of membership ranged from 3-8 million
In the South, it was more likely to include people with real political and social power
Wore white robes
Tried to conceal identity
Women Klan members rarely took part in lynchings. However, they brought up their children to be white supremacists and created anti-black environments


President Wilson,

A southerner, had no problem with segregation


President Harding

Spoke out against lynchings and broadly in favour of civil rights. He even addressed 30,000 segregated people at the Uni of Alabama on the evils of segregation.


Coolidge and Harding were

Committed to the policy of Lassez-Faire. They could express an opinion and try to influence behaviour but they wouldn't enforce legislation.


When the Depression hit America, the federal government was

Focused on sorting that out and civil rights issues slid even further out of sight.


Between 1917 and 1932, there was a wave of black migration from the South to the North and East, mainly to cities, which became known as

The Great Migration


By 1920, almost 40% of African Americans in the North were living in...

Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio


During the Great Migration (1917-32), the Eastern cities with the biggest population growth were

New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburg


Apart from being drawn from to the North and East to escape the South, why else did black people move in the Great Migration?

For work


Why did black migration begin?

The USA entered the First World War, producing a rising need for workers in the munition factories in the North. Factory owners advertised in Southern newspapers for workers. They offered housing, free transport North and good wages. Family and friends who had already migrated north also encouraged them to migrate.


What was life like for migrants that moved north in the Great Migration?

Segregation varied from city to city
Low paid jobs
Sometimes replaced by white workers who pushed for higher wages
Accommodation in the most crowded and run down part of the city
Higher rent than for white people
This didn't apply to all black people!


Impacts of the Great Migration on the North

Sharp population increase of places moved to
More political influence in certain cities e.g. Chicago
Segregation/ increased racial tension
Harlem Renaissance
More workers
Living conditions fell
More money made
White people lost out on jobs
Black people taken advantage if by taking low paid jobs


Impacts of the Great Migration on the South

Black people remaining were even more marginalised
Jim Crow Laws enforced more harshly
Less workers
Farming suffered
Economic problems
Jobs not done as effectively
Racial tensions increased