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Flashcards in American Literature Deck (156)
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1

PURITAN VS PILGRIM

PURITAN. PILGRIMS
.John Winthorp. . William Bradford
. Massachusetts Bay Colony. . Plymouth, ( on the Mayflower)
. Non separatists . Separatists
.John Smith

2

PURITANISM

. EMERGED IN ENGLAND AROUND THE MIDDLE OF THE 1500S
. AIM: TO PURIFY THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND OF HIERARCHY, RITUAL, CHURCH ADORNMENT, REVERENCING IMAGES OF SAINTS, AND ORNATE CLERICAL VESTMENTS.
. THEY WERE HARSHLY PERSECUTED BY CHARLES I
. SEEKING RELIGIOUS FREEDOM THEY EMIGRATED TO NEW ENGLAND FROM 1620-1630.
. BASED ON THE THEOLOGY OF CALVINISM
. Did not want to separate from the Church of England, but sought religious freedom

3

CALVINISM

. THEOLOGY OF JOHN CALVIN THAT STATES THAT GOD IS A HARSH GOD AND MANKIND IS DEPRAVED FROM BIRTH BECAUSE OF ADAM'S FALL.
. MOST ARE DAMNED DESPITE THEIR BEST EFFORTS
. EDUCATION WAS A RELIGIOUS DUTY
. CALVINISTIC HARSHNESS WAS TEMPERED BY "COVENANT THEORY": THE ONE GOD MADE WITH ABRAHAM

4

JOHN SMITH
.

. GENERALLY REGARDED AS THE EARLIEST WRITER OF AMERICAN LITERATURE.
.Early founder of Virgina Colony, Jamestown
. Pilgrim separatist

. "THE GENERAL HISTORIE OF VIRGINIA, NEW ENGLAND, AND THE SUMMER ISLES"

5

WILLIAM BRADFORD

Plymouth Pilgrim Separatist.
first Governor of Plymouth colony

"OF PLYMOUTH PLANTATION"

6

JOHN WINTHROP

Massachusetts Bay Puritan

"THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND"
"A MODEL OF CHRISTAIN CHARITY"

7

The first book published in the English colonies

The bay psalm book

8

Cotton Mather

Leader of the Salem witch trials

"MAGNOLIA CHRISTI"

9

Jonathan Edwards

Is admiration for nature/ natural science influenced Emerson Hawthorne and Melville and Whitman
Puritan

" PERSONAL NARRATIVE" ( A spiritual autobiography)
"SINNERS IN HANDS OF AN ANGRY GOD"

10

Anne Bradstreet

First published writer of the colonies
puritan

" AUTHOR TO HER BOOK OF POEMS
"TO MY DEAR HUSBAND" ( "If two were ever one then surely we...")
"TENTH MUSE"

11

PILGRIMS

. Early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony
. Believed similarly as the Puritan Calvinists, except they insisted on being separate from the church of England
. First were in the holland and they form a colony in America: Jamestown, Virginia.

12

MARY ROWLANDSON

"THE NARRATIVE OF THE CAPTIVITY AND RESTORATION OF MARY ROWLANDSON"

13

EDWARD TAYLOR

wrote with conceits/metaphysical style
medical doctor and pastor

"PREPARATORY MEDITATIONS"
"HUSWIFERY" ('...Make me, o Lord, thy spinning wheele complete...")

14

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

"The Way to Wealth"

15

JOHN TRUMBULL

"M' FINGAL" (" When yankis skill'd in martial rule...")

16

Phillis Wheatly

.First important black writer

" ON BEING BROUGHT FROM AFRICA" ("twas mercy brought me from my pagan land...")

17

ROGER WILLIAMS

a puritan who founded the colony of Rhode Island

18

ALVAR NUNEZ CABEZA DE VACA

"NAUFRAGIOS"- SHIPWRECKS

19

SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN

pioneer of the new france ( Canada)

"Des Sauvages"

20

Thomas Harriot

"BRIEF AND FREE REPORT OF THE NEW FOUNDLAND OF VIRGINIA

21

SAMSON OCCON

A Mohegan native American

"A SHORT NARRATIVE OF MY LIFE"

22

THOMAS PAINE (Quaker)

"COMMON SENSE"
"THE RIGHTS OF MAN"
"THE AGE OF REASON"
a pamphlet of the desire for the colonies to declare independence

23

THE FEDERALIST PAPERS

alexander hamilton
James madison
John Jay

" To the people of the state of New York"

24

WASHINGTON IRVING

The first of the romantic writers ( molding national literature)

RIP VAN WINKLE
LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW
SALMAGUNDI ( the name GOTHAM for NYC is coined)
A HISTORY OF NEW YORK ( HIS ALIAS -KNICKERBOCKER)

25

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER

THE LEATHER STOCKINGS SERIES ( Natty Bumpp is the main character in each)
a) THE DEERSLAYER
b)

26

THOMAS BANG THORPE

.antebellum writer
THE BIG BEAR OF ARKANSAS ( character Jim Doggett)
THE MASTER'S HOUSE

27

THE FIRESIDE POETS

. aka Household poets/Schoolroom Poets

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
William Cullen Bryant
John Greenleaf Whittier
James Russell Lowell
Oliver Wendell Holmes

28

William Cullen Bryant

Fireside poet

“Thanatopsis”

...Yet not to thine eternal resting-place
Shalt thou retire alone, nor couldst thou wish Couch more magnificent. Thou shalt lie down With patriarchs of the infant world—with kings, The powerful of the earth—the wise, the good, Fair forms, and hoary seers of ages past,
All in one mighty sepulchre

29

Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.

Fireside Poet

“Daily Trials By a Sensitive Man”

...Storms, thunders, waves!
Howl, crash, and bellow till ye get your fill; Ye sometimes rest; men never can be still But in their graves.

30

John Greenleaf Whittier

Fireside Poet

“Flowers in Winter”

How strange to greet, this frosty morn,
In graceful counterfeit of flower,
These children of the meadows, born
Of sunshine and of showers!