Amino Acid Synthesis Flashcards Preview

MCBM Exam 4 Kat > Amino Acid Synthesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amino Acid Synthesis Deck (59):
1

What kind of aa's are essential?

Ones that we cannot synthesize ourselves

2

What are the two pseudo-essential aa's?

Arg - insufficient in infants
Met - can be recycled

3

What two things do most Non-essential amino acids need?

NADPH and ATP

4

What is considered a risk factor for CVD?

Elevated serum homocysteine levels

5

What may result in elevated serum homocysteine levels?

Deficiencies in THF, B12 or B6

6

What amino acids are synthesized by direct transaminations?

Ala from Pyr
Asp from OAA
Glu from alpha-KG

7

How is proline synthesized?

By the reversal of Proline catabolization to Glu

8

How is Tyrosine made?

By hydroxylation of phenylalanine catalyzed by phenylalanine hydroxylase

9

What is Phenylalanine hydroxylase?

A mixed function oxidase

10

Are neurotransmitters transient?

Yes

11

Which NT's are rapidly degraded or altered in the synaptic cleft?

ACh via Acetylcholinesterase
Norepinephrine via monoamine oxidase
Dopamine via monoamine oxidase

12

What neurotransmitter get's endocytosed?

Serotonin

13

What is ACh derived from??

Serine

14

What does botox do to ACh?

Blocks ACh secretion

15

What does Cognex do to ACh?

Slows acetylcholinesterase

16

What does Sarin do to ACh?

Blocks acetylcholinesterase

17

What does Atropine do to ACh?

Blocks acetylcholine receptor

18

What is GABA derived from?

Glutamate which is decarboxylated

19

What type of NT is GABA and how does it act?

It is an inhibitory NT that acts by increasing K+ permeability of post-synaptic neuron

20

In what cases is GABA decreased?

Huntington's chorea
Epilepsy

21

What increases GABA?

Valium
Librium
Alcohol

22

What thyroid hormones come from Tyrosine?

T3
T4

23

What NT's/Hormones come from Tyrosine?

DOPA
Dopamin
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine

24

What pigment compounds come from Tyrosine?

Melanin

25

What is Serotonin derived from?

Tryptophan which is hydroxylated then decarboxylated

26

How does Serotonin affect the body?

A potent vasoconstrictor in brain, platelets and mast cells
A major regulator of mood in the CNS

27

What can Serotonin be converted into?

Melatonin in the pineal gland (Makes you sleepy)

28

What increases serotonin levels?

SSRIs like Prozac and Zoloft

29

What is tryptophan a precursor for?

Nicotinate (niacin), the ring portion of NAD and NADP

30

What is Histamine derived from?

Histidine which is decarboxylated

31

What is histamine secreted by?

Mast cells
Lung
Gastric Mucosa

32

What's the function of histamine?

It's a potent vasodilator

33

What is Tagamet?

An H2 receptor agonist with similar structure to histamine

34

NO derived from what aa?

Arginine via the enzyme nitric oxide synthase

35

What is the function of NO?

It's a potent vasodilator

36

What 3 aa's make Glutathione(GSH)?

Glu
Cys
Gly

37

What kind of reducing agent is GSH?

A strong one

38

Is there a gene or mRNA for GSH?

Nope

39

What 3 aa's make Creatine Phosphate?

Arg
Gly
Met

40

What does Creatine Phosphate phosphorylate?

ADP > ATP

41

What can store phosphate with increasing ATP levels as a result of Creatine Phosphate?

Muscle and Cardiac

42

What can creatine phosphate be metabolized into?

Creatinine

43

What does increased excretion of creatinine indicative of?

Kidney Damage

44

What are polyamides made from?

Ornithine

45

When do polyamines with DNA ?

During compaction

46

What is carnitine made from?

Trimethyllysine

47

How does carnitine act as an acyl group carrier?

Picks up acyl in cytoplasm, transfers to CoA in mitochondria then free carnitine returns to cytoplasm

48

Where is heme primarily synthesized?

Primarily in liver and bone

49

What are porphyrias?

Diseases of heme synthesis

50

What is congenital erythropoietic porphyria?

A defect in the enzyme cosynthase which results in large amounts of uroporphyrinogen I.

51

What are the symptoms of congenital erythropoietic porphyria?

Premature destruction of RBC's
Red Urine
Teeth have strong red fluorescence
Skin Sensitive to Light

What are you a Vampire?

52

What is acute intermittent porphyria?

A defect in the enzyme uroporphyrinogen I synthase.

53

What are the symptoms of acute intermittent porphyria?

Dark urine (primarily liver defect)
Episodic bouts of irrational behavior
Paralysis or severe pain
Hypertension

54

What is toxic porphyria?

Chemical induced by drugs like Phenobarbital

55

Where do RBC's break down?

In the spleen where they release heme

56

What does heme degrade into?

Biliverdin, CO and free FE2+

57

What does Biliverdin get converted into?

Bilirubin which is carried by albumin through the bloodstream to the liver

58

What is bilirubin converted into and where is it excreted?

It is converted into bilirubin diglucuronide for excretion into the small intestine with bile.

59

What does Liver damage or blocked bile ducts result in?

Jaundice