Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism Flashcards Preview

MCBM Exam 4 Kat > Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism Deck (57):
1

In what order are body fuels used?

8 hrs: Liver glycogen depleted
24 hrs: Triglycerides provide energy for body, Protein degradation provides glucose for the brain
Several Days: ketone bodies used as alternative fuels

2

How does glucagon affect brain function?

It insures brain function as it releases fuels from liver glycogen (brain) and adipose triglycerides (body)

3

What energy processes involving glucagon happen in the liver?

Glycogenolysis
Gluconeogenesis
Fatty Acid Release
Ketone Body Syntheis

4

What does insulin insure?

Fuel storage (glycogen and fat)

5

What energy processes involving insulin happen in the liver?

Glycogen Synthesis
Glycolysis (AcCoA) Synthesis
Fatty Acid Synthesis

6

What hormones have a slower, but more prolonged mechanism of action than that of insulin, glucagon and epinephrine?

Cortisol
Thyroid Hormone
Leptin
Adiponectin

7

What kind of hormone is cortisol?

A steroid hormone

8

What triggers cortisol secretion?

Stress

9

Does cortisol secretion respond to hypothalmic/pituitary signals?

Yes, unlike other metabolic regulators

10

What is the pathway to cortisol secretion?

Hypothalmus secretes CRH into portal system > Anterior pituitary secretes ACTH into systemic circulation > Adrenal cortex responds with secretion of cortisol

11

What kind of precursor protein does ACTH come from?

A large precursor protein

12

What sort of effects does cortisol have on the body?

Elevate blood glucose
Mobilize fat
Increase muscle protein catabolism
Anti-inflammatory effects (well known)

13

What disease results from excess cortisol?

Cushing's Syndrome

14

What are the symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome?

Weight gain of upper body
Easy bruising
Purple stretch marks
Excess hair growth or acne in women
Menstrual disorder
Faitgue & Muscle weakness
Mood swings

15

What disease results from Cortisol deficiency?

Addison's Disease

16

What are the symptoms of Addison's disease?

Changes in blood pressure
Chronic Diarrhea
Patchy skin color
Paleness
Extreme weakness
Loss of appetite
Mouth lesions on buccal mucosa
Nausea and Vomiting
Salt Craving
Sluggish Movement
Unintentional weight loss

17

Converting thyroglobulin to T4 and T3

Thyroglobulin - Tyr
to
Thyroglobulin - Tyr - I
to (via proteolysis)
Thyroxin (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3)

18

What diseases result from Hypothyroidism?

Myxedema
Hashimoto's Syndrome

19

What are the symptoms of Hypothyroidism?

Cold sensitive
Unintentional weight gain
Fatigue
Brittle hair/nails
Constipation
Depression

20

What is another name for congenital hypothyroidism?

Cretinism

21

What disease results from Hyperthyroidism?

Grave's Disease

22

What are the symptoms of Grave's Disease?

Heat sensitive
Unintentional weight loss
Exopthalmia
Irregular Heartbeat
Insomnia
Diarrhea
Irritability
Tremor

23

What is Leptin know as and what is it secreted by?

Leptin is known as the "set point" hormone.
It is secreted by fat

24

What type of receptor is the leptin receptor?

Orphan

25

What is the function of Leptin?

It maintains constant mass.

26

What is JAK?

Janus Kinase

27

What is STAT?

Signal Transducing Activator of Transcription

28

What happens to muscle when Adiponectin activates AMPK?

Up Fatty Acid Uptake
Up Beta Oxidation
Up Glucose Uptake

29

What happens to the liver when Adiponectin activates AMPK?

Up glycolysis
Down Gluconeogenesis
Down Fatty Acid Synthesis

30

What types of energy processes does AMPK inhibit and activate?

It inhibits energy consuming processes
It activates energy producing processes

31

What signaling pathway is used when bacterial products are present?

Toll Receptor/NFkB

32

What signaling pathway is used when glucocorticoids are present?

Transcriptional Regulation

33

What signaling pathway is used when Cytokines are present?

JAK/STAT

34

What signaling pathway is used when Thromboxane A2 is present?

Serpentine/PKC

35

What signaling pathway is used when Nitric Oxide is present?

Guanylate cyclase/PKG

36

What are toll receptors activated by?

PAMPs
Pathogen
Associated
Molecular
Patterns

37

What two major pro-inflammatory transcription factors are activated by toll receptors?

AP-1
NFkB

38

What is NFkB considered in inflammation?

It's the master switch for inflammation

39

What does NFkB activate?

Gene expression for many inflammatory cytokines and synthetic enzymes for inflammatory mediators

40

What role does NFkB play in cancer?

Regulates synthesis of proteins that inhibit apoptosis (cIAPs)

41

What type of hormones are glucocorticoids?

Steroid hormones

42

Are steroid lipophilic or lipophobic?

Lipophilic

43

What type of signaling is the receptor enzyme Guanylate Cyclase like?

cAMP signaling

44

Does Guanylate cyclase require a G protein?

No

45

What does Guanylate cyclase activate ultimately?

cGMP - dependent protein kinase (PKG)

46

Where is Guanylate cyclase found?

Epithelium
Heart
Blood Vessels
Brain
Kidney Collecting Tubules

47

What function is Guanylate cyclase important in?

Blood pressure regulation

48

What are the 2 types of guanylate cyclase and what are they activated by?

1) integral membrane proteins are activated by atrial natriuretic factors (ANF)
2) cytosolic protein w/ associated heme is activated by Nitric Oxide (NO)

49

What is the function of ANF?

Enhances Na+ and H2O excretion in the kidney collection tubules
Makes the heart an endocrine gland and serves to decrease blood pressure

50

What was the first gas to be recognized as a biological messenger?

Nitric Oxide

51

What is the function of NO?

It is the blood pressure police

52

How are NO and nitroglycerin related?

Nitroglycerin slowly degrades into NO

53

What is angina due to?

Ischemia in area of heart muscle

54

What does NO do when it binds guanylate cyclase?

It increases cGMP which activates PKG

55

What does PKG result in?

Low cytosolic Ca2+ resulting in relaxation of heart muscle

56

What does cGMP Phosphodiesterase do?

breaks down cGMP to halt signal from ANF or NO

57

What drug is cGMP Phosphodiesterase inhibited by?

Viagra which leads to potentially localized vasodilation