Flashcards in Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism Deck (57):
In what order are body fuels used?
8 hrs: Liver glycogen depleted
24 hrs: Triglycerides provide energy for body, Protein degradation provides glucose for the brain
Several Days: ketone bodies used as alternative fuels
How does glucagon affect brain function?
It insures brain function as it releases fuels from liver glycogen (brain) and adipose triglycerides (body)
What energy processes involving glucagon happen in the liver?
Fatty Acid Release
Ketone Body Syntheis
What does insulin insure?
Fuel storage (glycogen and fat)
What energy processes involving insulin happen in the liver?
Glycolysis (AcCoA) Synthesis
Fatty Acid Synthesis
What hormones have a slower, but more prolonged mechanism of action than that of insulin, glucagon and epinephrine?
What kind of hormone is cortisol?
A steroid hormone
What triggers cortisol secretion?
Does cortisol secretion respond to hypothalmic/pituitary signals?
Yes, unlike other metabolic regulators
What is the pathway to cortisol secretion?
Hypothalmus secretes CRH into portal system > Anterior pituitary secretes ACTH into systemic circulation > Adrenal cortex responds with secretion of cortisol
What kind of precursor protein does ACTH come from?
A large precursor protein
What sort of effects does cortisol have on the body?
Elevate blood glucose
Increase muscle protein catabolism
Anti-inflammatory effects (well known)
What disease results from excess cortisol?
What are the symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome?
Weight gain of upper body
Purple stretch marks
Excess hair growth or acne in women
Faitgue & Muscle weakness
What disease results from Cortisol deficiency?
What are the symptoms of Addison's disease?
Changes in blood pressure
Patchy skin color
Loss of appetite
Mouth lesions on buccal mucosa
Nausea and Vomiting
Unintentional weight loss
Converting thyroglobulin to T4 and T3
Thyroglobulin - Tyr
Thyroglobulin - Tyr - I
to (via proteolysis)
What diseases result from Hypothyroidism?
What are the symptoms of Hypothyroidism?
Unintentional weight gain
What is another name for congenital hypothyroidism?
What disease results from Hyperthyroidism?
What are the symptoms of Grave's Disease?
Unintentional weight loss
What is Leptin know as and what is it secreted by?
Leptin is known as the "set point" hormone.
It is secreted by fat
What type of receptor is the leptin receptor?
What is the function of Leptin?
It maintains constant mass.
What is JAK?
What is STAT?
Signal Transducing Activator of Transcription
What happens to muscle when Adiponectin activates AMPK?
Up Fatty Acid Uptake
Up Beta Oxidation
Up Glucose Uptake
What happens to the liver when Adiponectin activates AMPK?
Down Fatty Acid Synthesis
What types of energy processes does AMPK inhibit and activate?
It inhibits energy consuming processes
It activates energy producing processes
What signaling pathway is used when bacterial products are present?
What signaling pathway is used when glucocorticoids are present?
What signaling pathway is used when Cytokines are present?
What signaling pathway is used when Thromboxane A2 is present?
What signaling pathway is used when Nitric Oxide is present?
What are toll receptors activated by?
What two major pro-inflammatory transcription factors are activated by toll receptors?
What is NFkB considered in inflammation?
It's the master switch for inflammation
What does NFkB activate?
Gene expression for many inflammatory cytokines and synthetic enzymes for inflammatory mediators
What role does NFkB play in cancer?
Regulates synthesis of proteins that inhibit apoptosis (cIAPs)
What type of hormones are glucocorticoids?
Are steroid lipophilic or lipophobic?
What type of signaling is the receptor enzyme Guanylate Cyclase like?
Does Guanylate cyclase require a G protein?
What does Guanylate cyclase activate ultimately?
cGMP - dependent protein kinase (PKG)
Where is Guanylate cyclase found?
Kidney Collecting Tubules
What function is Guanylate cyclase important in?
Blood pressure regulation
What are the 2 types of guanylate cyclase and what are they activated by?
1) integral membrane proteins are activated by atrial natriuretic factors (ANF)
2) cytosolic protein w/ associated heme is activated by Nitric Oxide (NO)
What is the function of ANF?
Enhances Na+ and H2O excretion in the kidney collection tubules
Makes the heart an endocrine gland and serves to decrease blood pressure
What was the first gas to be recognized as a biological messenger?
What is the function of NO?
It is the blood pressure police
How are NO and nitroglycerin related?
Nitroglycerin slowly degrades into NO
What is angina due to?
Ischemia in area of heart muscle
What does NO do when it binds guanylate cyclase?
It increases cGMP which activates PKG
What does PKG result in?
Low cytosolic Ca2+ resulting in relaxation of heart muscle
What does cGMP Phosphodiesterase do?
breaks down cGMP to halt signal from ANF or NO