AN INTRODUCTION TO NFORMATION SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

INF1505 > AN INTRODUCTION TO NFORMATION SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in AN INTRODUCTION TO NFORMATION SYSTEM Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...
1

system

A set of elements or
components that interact to
accomplish goals.

2

Components
of a System

- input
- processing
- output

3

How to measure a system

1. efficiency

A measure of what
is produced divided by what is
consumed

2.effectiveness

A measure of the
extent to which a system achieves
its goals; it can be computed
by dividing the goals actually
achieved by the total of the stated
goals


3. system performance standard


A specific objective of the system.

4

information system (IS)

A set
of interrelated components that
collect, manipulate, store and
disseminate information and
provide a feedback mechanism to
meet an objective.

5

Input

The activity of gathering and capturing data

6

processing

converting or transforming input into useful outputs

7

output

Production of useful
information, often in the form
of documents and reports

8

feedback

Output that is used
to make changes to input or
processing activities

9

forecasting

Predicting future
events

10

characteristics of valuable information

1.Accessible Information - should be easily accessible by authorized users so they can obtain it
in the right format and at the right time to meet their needs

2.Accurate Accurate - information is error free. In some cases, inaccurate information is
generated because inaccurate data is fed into the transformation process

3. Complete - Complete information contains all the important facts, but not more facts than
are necessary (see the Simple characteristic below)

4. Economical Information - should also be relatively economical to produce. Decision makers
must always balance the value of information with the cost of producing it
5. Flexible Flexible information can be used for a variety of purposes. For example,
information on how much inventory is on hand for a particular part can be
used by a sales representative in closing a sale, by a production manager to
determine whether more inventory is needed, and by a financial executive to
determine the total value the company has invested in inventory

6. Relevant Relevant information is important to the decision maker

7. Reliable Reliable information can be depended on. In many cases, the reliability of the
information depends on the reliability of the data-collection method. In other
instances, reliability depends on the source of the information. A rumour from
an unknown source that oil prices might go up soon may not be reliable (even
though it might be useful)

8. Secure Information should be secure from access by unauthorized users

9. Simple Information should be simple, not overly complex. Sophisticated and detailed
information might not be needed. In fact, too much information can cause
information overload, whereby a decision maker is unable to determine what is
really important

10. Timely Timely information is delivered when it is needed. Knowing last week’s weather
conditions will not help when trying to decide what coat to wear today

11 . Verifiable Information should be verifiable. This means that you can check it to make sure
it is correct, perhaps by checking many sources for the same information

11

computer-based information
system (CBIS)

A single set of
hardware, software, databases,
telecommunications, people
and procedures that is configured
to collect, manipulate, store and
process data into information.

12

technology infrastructure

All the
hardware, software, databases,
telecommunications, people and
procedures that are configured
to collect, manipulate, store and
process data into informatio

13

The
Components of a
Computer-Based
Information System

1. hardware Any machinery (most
of which uses digital circuits) that
assists in the input, processing,
storage and output activities of an
information system.

2. software The computer programs
that govern the operation of the
compute

3. database An organized collection
of electronic information.

4. telecommunications The
electronic transmission of signals
for communications; enables
organizations to carry out their
processes and tasks through
effective computer networks

5. networks Computers and
equipment that are connected
in a building, around the country
or around the world to enable
electronic communications

6. People
People are the most important element in most computer-based information systems. The
people involved include users of the system and information systems personnel, including all the
people who manage, run, program and maintain the system.

7. procedures The strategies,
policies, methods and rules for
using a CBIS

14

internet

Internet The world’s largest
computer network, actually
consisting of thousands of
interconnected networks, all freely
exchanging information

15

cloud computing

cloud computing A computing
environment where software and
storage are provided as an Internet
service and are accessed via a
web browser

16

intranets

intranets An internal company
network built using Internet and
World Wide Web standards and
products that allows people within
an organization to exchange
information and work on projects

17

extranet

extranet A network based on web
technologies that allows selected
outsiders, such as business
partners, suppliers or customers,
to access authorized resources of
a company’s intranet