Flashcards in An Introduction: Topic 1 Deck (23)
What are two types of congenital heart disease in kids?
Acquired vs. Congenital
What are two types of environmentally acquired heart diseases in kids?
Rheumatic heart disease
What is the prevalence of acquired congenital heart disease?
1-4 : 1000
What type of heart disease is a birth defect?
Congenital; structural in nature, pulmonary blood flow related (Qp)
What is the prevalence of congenital heart disease?
1:100 - 150
What is the #1 birth defect?
Congenital heart defects
How many babies born in the US each year with a congenital heart defect? 1 out of how many births?
1 out of 115-150 births
HR/RR in Newborns to 1 y/o
HR/RR in 1 to 4 y/o
HR/RR in 4 to 12 y/o
HR/RR in >12 y/o
What are pediatric patients prone to?
Intracranial bleeds because vasculature may not be developed
Surgeon's tolerance for pressures in peds is more toward what pressure?
40 mmHG, not many will let you go higher than this
What are the two ways calcium values are reported?
Ionized - not bound to protein, free calcium
Serum (total) - bound to proteins
What type of calcium is more relevant?
Ionized (available to be used)
Ionized Calcium Normal Values
Conventional: 4.5 - 5.6 mg/dL
SI units: Kidlets: 1.10-1.35 mmol/L
SI units: Adults: 1.11-1.3 mmol/L
Total (serum) Calcium Normal Values
Conventional: 8.5 - 10.3 mg/dL
SI Units: 2.12 - 2.57 mmol/L (kids)
How is the plasma (serum,total) calcium concentration usually reported in the US? What are other ways?
Other countries: mmol/L
Some labs: mEq/L
How to convert from mmol/L to mg/dl?
mmol/L= [mg/dL x 10] / mol wt
How to convert from mEq/L to mmol/L?
mEq/L= mmol/L x valence electrons
Molecular weight of Calcium
Which normal values are very important in pediatrics?
Mixed Venous Blood Gases