An Introduction: Topic 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in An Introduction: Topic 1 Deck (23):
1

What are two types of congenital heart disease in kids?

Acquired vs. Congenital

2

What are two types of environmentally acquired heart diseases in kids?

Kawasaki's disease
Rheumatic heart disease

3

What is the prevalence of acquired congenital heart disease?

1-4 : 1000

4

What type of heart disease is a birth defect?

Congenital; structural in nature, pulmonary blood flow related (Qp)

5

What is the prevalence of congenital heart disease?

1:100 - 150

6

What is the #1 birth defect?

Congenital heart defects

7

How many babies born in the US each year with a congenital heart defect? 1 out of how many births?

25,000
1 out of 115-150 births

8

HR/RR in Newborns to 1 y/o

HR= 140
RR= 40

9

HR/RR in 1 to 4 y/o

HR=120
RR=30

10

HR/RR in 4 to 12 y/o

HR=100
RR=20

11

HR/RR in >12 y/o

HR= 80
RR=15

12

What are pediatric patients prone to?

Intracranial bleeds because vasculature may not be developed

13

Surgeon's tolerance for pressures in peds is more toward what pressure?

40 mmHG, not many will let you go higher than this

14

What are the two ways calcium values are reported?

Ionized - not bound to protein, free calcium
Serum (total) - bound to proteins

15

What type of calcium is more relevant?

Ionized (available to be used)

16

Ionized Calcium Normal Values

Conventional: 4.5 - 5.6 mg/dL
SI units: Kidlets: 1.10-1.35 mmol/L
SI units: Adults: 1.11-1.3 mmol/L

17

Total (serum) Calcium Normal Values

Conventional: 8.5 - 10.3 mg/dL
SI Units: 2.12 - 2.57 mmol/L (kids)

18

How is the plasma (serum,total) calcium concentration usually reported in the US? What are other ways?

mg/dL
Other countries: mmol/L
Some labs: mEq/L

19

How to convert from mmol/L to mg/dl?

mmol/L= [mg/dL x 10] / mol wt

20

How to convert from mEq/L to mmol/L?

mEq/L= mmol/L x valence electrons

21

Molecular weight of Calcium

40.078

22

Which normal values are very important in pediatrics?

Mixed Venous Blood Gases

23

Calcium Normal Value (mEq/L)

8.5- 10.5 mEq/L