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Case 11: Anaemia > Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaemia Deck (8)
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1

What is Anaemia?

Anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin level <120g/L in female and <140g/L in male or <125g/L in adults
Always use your own lab's test range

2

What is the most common cause of anaemia?

Iron deficiency which is classed as microcytic anaemia based on MCV

3

What is the simple pathophysiology of anaemia?

Anaemia develops when the rate of RBC production decreases and/or the rate of RBC loss increases. Anaemia is hence the presenting sign of a more serious underlying condition.

4

What is used to classify Anaemia?

MCV-MCV is a measurement of the average size of your red blood cells. MCH results tend to mirror MCV results. This is because bigger red blood cells generally contain more hemoglobin while smaller red blood cells tend to have less.

5

How many types of anaemia (based on MCV) are there?

3.
Hypochromic microcytic anaemia (<80fL)
Normochromic normocytic anaemia (80-96 fL)
Marcocytic anaemia (>96fL)

6

When should anaemia be considered in patients?

It should be considered in patients presenting with:
Fatigue
Low energy level
Pallor
Dyspnoea on exertion
As well in children with growth impairment

7

Differentials of anaemia

Trauma
Acute GI bleeding
Surgery
Menorrhagia
Iron deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Folate deficiency
Myelodysplastic syndrome
Acute lymphocytic leukaemia
Acquired aplastic anaemia
Drug toxicity
Anaemia of chronic disease
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic liver disease
Pregnancy

8

Approach to investigating anaemia

The approach to any anaemia has four steps:
1. Establish the type of anaemia
2. Find the immediate cause of the anaemia
3. Treat the anaemia
4. Investigate and treat the underlying disease process that has caused the anaemia