# Analysis Fundamentals (ch. 1-4) Flashcards Preview

## Analysis of Movement > Analysis Fundamentals (ch. 1-4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Analysis Fundamentals (ch. 1-4) Deck (71)
1
Q

What does isokinetic mean?

A

constant joint velocity

2
Q

If there is constant external load, like in lifting free weights, what is the term for that?

A

isoinertial

3
Q

Joint torque is a product of what?

A

muscle force and moment arm

4
Q

What is muscle force dependent on?

A

1) muscle structure
2) muscle activation
3) mechanical properties (length/tension, force/velocity)

5
Q

What are the A and I bands of muscle cell structure?

A
```A = length of only thick filament (stays same)
I = length of only thin filament (shortens in contraction)```
6
Q

Name the layers of CT surrounding muscle tissue, most exterior to most interior.

A

Epimysium -> perimysium -> endomysium -> sarcolemma

7
Q

What are the myofilaments?

A

actin and myosin; make up a myofibril, which make up myofiber

8
Q

Which alignment of sarcomeres is better for force, parallel or in series?

A

parallel (more CSA)

9
Q

Are sarcomeres in series better for force or excursion?

A

excursion

10
Q

What band anchors the thin filament?

A

z-band

11
Q

How do you find the force for a pinnate muscle?

A

take the force and multiply it by the cosine of the angle

12
Q

What does fiber length give you an estimate of?

A

amount of excursion from the muscle (since fiber length is counting the sarcomeres in series)

13
Q

What does physiological CSA give you an estimate of?

A

it’s on an oblique angle, taking into account the pinnation angle, so it gives you an approximate force capacity value

14
Q

Which has more excursion, soleus or sartorius?

A

sartorius, b/c it’s longer

15
Q

What dictates the degree of fiber excursion?

A

muscle fiber length

16
Q

What dictates maximal strength of a muscle?

A

physiological CSA

17
Q

T/F: Muscle length and muscle tension are proportional.

A

true, after the critical length

18
Q

What’s the difference between active and passive insufficiency?

A
• passive = muscle can’t lengthen far enough, since a full stretch at multiple joints can’t occur (filaments too far apart to produce active tension)
• muscle trying to lengthen at 2 joints simultaneously
• active = muscle can’t shorten far enough; excessive overlap of contraction sites
• muscle trying to contract at 2 joints simultaneously
19
Q

How many degrees of freedom do ellipsoidal joints have? What’s an example of this kind of joint?

A
• 2 degrees of freedom

20
Q

What’s an example of a condyloid joint?

A

the knuckle, MCP; has 2 degrees of freedom

21
Q

How many degrees of freedom do plane joints have? What’s an example of a plane joint?

A
• 3 degrees of freedom

- facet joints, AC joint

22
Q

What’s the difference between a 2nd class lever and a 3rd class lever?

A
```2nd = resistance at end (better mechanical advantage)
3rd = load at end (better velocity)```
23
Q

What type of joint has irregular joint arranged in a haphazard fashion?

A

synarthrosis joints

24
Q

Do ellipsoid joints have flattened concave or convex surfaces?

A

flattened convex

25
Q

What’s an example of a condyloid joint?

A

tibiofemoral, MCPs

26
Q

What is akylosis?

A

When the joint fuses together; can be due to inflammation or genetics
- ex: akylosing spondylitis = spinal fusion

27
Q

What’s the difference between arthrodesis and pseudoarthrosis?

A
```arthrodesis = moving joint up surgically
pseudoarthrosis = improper healing of a broken bone, resulting in pseudo joint (non-union)```
28
Q

What do synovial plica do?

A

increase surface area

29
Q

What type of collagen makes up tendons and ligaments?

A

type I

30
Q

What type of collagen is very thick and found in fibrous capsules?

A

type I

31
Q

What type of collagen is found in hyaline cartilage and is a little more flexible?

A

type II

32
Q

What type of collagen do we transition into more of when we age?

A

type I: stiffer, not as flexible

33
Q

What do proteoglycans do?

A
• imbibe water for disks/menisci via negatively charged sugars
• AAs that branch and bind to core protein
34
Q

Ligaments and tendons have what kind of dense connective tissue?

A

regular

35
Q

What structure contains irregular dense connective tissue?

A

fibrous joint capsule

36
Q

T/F: Tissue doesn’t change much after large periods of immobilization.

A

false; after 6 weeks immobilization, the limbs need a LOT more torque to move them

37
Q

If a patient is on bedrest for 2 months, how long of physical activity do they need before they regain normalcy?

A

4 months (double the time of immobilization)

38
Q

What is on the end of bones to reduce friction and distribute loads?

A

articular cartilage

39
Q

What is articular cartilage mostly made up of?

A

1) extracellular matrix (85%): collagen, proteoglycans, water
2) chondrocytes (10%): develop articular cartilage, maintain EM

40
Q

T/F: If scar tissue builds up, more water is imbibed.

A

false, less water is taken up

41
Q

What happens in DJD?

A

degenerative joint disease = articular cartilage lost, so there’s less lubrication; can have bone on bone

42
Q

What does articular cartilage do?

A

lubricate joints for smoother movement; distributes loads so bones don’t get upset

43
Q

What happens in RA?

A

RA causes inflammation that breaks down the CT in the body, causing ulnar drift in the hand

44
Q

What type of cartilage are the labrum, IVDs, and pubic symphysis considered?

A

fibrocartilage: irregular dense CT

45
Q

What are the 4 functions of bone?

A

1) fascilitate body movement, muscle action
2) store minerals
3) provide muscle attachment sites
4) protect internal organs

46
Q

How long does healthy bone reformation take? What is necessary for this process?

A

3-4 months; need WB to remodel

47
Q

What is the most sensitive part of bone that is always remodeling and breaking down?

A

cancellous, or spongy bone

48
Q

What types of arteries supply the medullary canal of bones?

A

nutrient arteries

49
Q

What is wolf’s law?

A

bone remodels according to the stress/load placed upon it

50
Q

What part of the bone allows it to be strong without being heavy?

A

trabeculae in cancellous bone (spongy)

51
Q

At what age are we done building bone? At what age do we decline in bone mass?

A
• done building at 25

- decline at 70

52
Q

Describe the bone healing process after a fracture. (We cast to preserve this process.)

A

1) fracture occurs, blood goes to area
2) fibrocartilaginous callus forms
3) bony callus forms (stronger)
4) bone remodels

53
Q

T/F: Some bones need more stress than others to stimulate bone reformation.

A

true

54
Q

T/F: Lack of Vit. D and calcium can cause back pain.

A

true - your bones need it and may be hurting without it

55
Q

Are load-bearing bones able to get back to BMD baseline after periods of inactivity?

A

usually still lower than baseline after long inactivity periods (months of bedrest)

56
Q

Why do we want to encourage patients who are able to, to weight bear after surgery or injury?

A
• to increase bone remodeling

- to decrease bone mineral density loss from long bouts of inactivity

57
Q

The velocity of muscle contraction is dependent on what factor?

A

how heavy the load is that the muscle has to displace

58
Q

T/F: Lengthening = positive work.

A

false

• lengthening = negative work
• shortening = positive work
59
Q

When considering function, what’s more important: power or strength or velocity?

A

power (force x velocity)

60
Q

As length increases, what happens to tension?

A

tension increases

61
Q

T/F: Force decreases with firing frequency.

A
• false, force increases w/ firing frequency, up to a point

- this is the rate coding: higher firing rates = higher force

62
Q

What is the order of recruitment for motor unit types?

A

slow oxidative -> fast oxidative glycolytic -> fast glycolytic

63
Q

T/F: Fast glycolytic has a high twitch response.

A

true

64
Q

What is rate coding, and what does it do to force?

A

rate coding = the increasing or decreasing of firing rates of MUs, directly related to the force production

65
Q

What is the loss of CSA that occurs with old age called?

A

sarcopenia

66
Q

T/F: The mechanism of transient fatigue is task-specific.

A

true

67
Q

What accounts for a large decrease in muscle strength in the elderly?

A

sarcopenia

68
Q

T/F: We see increased co-contraction in the elderly.

A

true, this is a mechanism of weakness for them

69
Q

What two variables affect EMG values?

A

the timing of muscle activation and the amplitude

70
Q

Describe the 3 Newton laws.

A

1: Law of inertia
2: Law of acceleration
3: Law of action-reaction

71
Q

How do you use the right hand rule?

A

align ulnar hand along x, curl fingers towards y

• if thumb goes out of board, “+”
• if thumb goes into board, “-“