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Flashcards in Anat/Musculoskeletal Deck (40):

rotator cuff muscles

"SITS" *all help to stabilize shoulder joint*
1. Supraspinatus - abduct arm
2. Infraspinatus - external rotation
3. Teres minor - external rotation
4. Subscapularis - initiate elevation (abduction)


Intrinsic shoulder muscles

7, originate on clavicle and scapula.
1-4: Rotator cuff mm (SITS - supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis)
5. teres major
6. coracobrachialis
7. deltoid


quadriceps muscles

4, extension of leg
1. rectus femoris
2. vastus medialis
3. vastus intermedius
4. vasuts lateralis


hamstrings muscles

3, flexors of the leg
1. biceps femoris
2. semitendinosus
3. semimembranosus


extensors in forearm

1, 2. extensor carpi radialis longus & brevis3. extensor carpi ulnaris4. extensor digitorum 5. extensor indicis6. extensor digiti minimi7, 8. extensor pollucis longus & brevis


flexors in forearm

1. flexor carpi radialis
2. flexor carpi ulnaris
3, 4. flexor carpi digitorum profundus & superficialis
5. flexor digiti minimi brevis
6, 7. flexor pollucis longus & brevis


Cephalic vein runs with...

Deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery,
In deltopectoral triangle


Deltopectoral triangle

Where Cephalic vein (and deltoid branch of thoracoacromial artery run)
*here: Cephalic dives under clavicle to join subclavian vein


Quadrangular space

* axillary n and posterior circumflex humeral artery emerge
Btwn Teres major and minor, triceps brachii long head, and humerus


Triangular interval

* see deep brachial artery and radial n
Btwn 2 heads of triceps brachii (long and lateral), and Teres major


Artery along medial border of scapula

Dorsal scapular artery!


1st 5 branches from brachial plexus

1. Long thoracic n
2. Dorsal scapular n
3. N to phrenic
4. N to Subclavius
5. Suprascapular n


Musculocutaneous n pierces which m?

Coracobrachialis m!


Travels with median n into cubical fossa

Brachial artery


Runs with radial n in arm

Deep brachial artery
Runs with radial n down posterior upper arm


semilunar valves

aortic and pulmonary valves (btwn ventricles and major vessels)


atrioventricular valves

tricuspid and bicuspid (Mitral) valves


great cardiac vein runs with ?

anterior interventricular artery


middle cardiac vein runs with?

posterior interventricular artery


small cardiac vein runs with ?

right marginal artery


scapular winging

when long thoracic nerve is damaged
-- serratus anterior fail to protract (hold down) scapula


dorsal root ganglion

sensory nerves ONly! (IN the back, out the front)


ventral root

motor neurons olny


a., runs with median n

Brachial artery (a = just lateral to median n)
*ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nn also run close (medial)


n., runs with radial artery

Superficial radial nerve


a., runs with ulnar nerve

Ulnar artery


Arteries, run btwn ulna and radius

Anterior and posterior Interosseous arteries, (ulnar a --> common Interosseous --> ant/post. intosseous aa)


Nerve running just underneath the mucosa of the Piriform Recesses

= Internal Laryngeal n. (branch of Superior laryngeal, of CN X)
=> efferent only => Cough reflex


Paget's disease of Bone (Osteitis deformans)
- Sxs
- Risks

= excess activity of osteoClasts AND Blasts
- "chalk-stick" fractures of long bones
- increased hat size & hearing loss (bc bone growth)
- AV shunts --> risk heart failure
* increased risk osteogenic sarcoma


McCune-Albright syndrome

= polyostotic fibrous dysplasia type (spontaneous Gprotein mut.)
1. Multiple unilateral bone lesions,
2. Unilateral cafe-au-lait spots or "coast of Maine" spots
3. endocrine abnormalities (=> precocious puberty)


Factors that predispose to Osteosarcoma

(malignant primary bone tumor, most common in boys, esp. @ knee)
Risk factors: 1. Paget's disease of bone
2. Bone infarcts or radiation
3. familial retinoblastoma


"Empty can test" tests which muscle?

Supraspinatus (main initial abductor muscle of rotator cuff muscles)
= tested by the Empty Can Test
* the tendon may be impinged btwn acromion & head of humerus!


Osteoarthritis vs. RA

Osteo: end of day pain, no MCP involved, joint space narrowing w/ osteophytes, eburnation, & sclerosis
RA: morning stiffness, symmetric, Type III hypersens. (anti-IgG or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide Ab), *nodules w/ fibrinoid necrosis. pannus formation & increased synovial fluid.


Triad of Sjögren's syndrome:

1. Xeropthalmia (dry eyes, conjunctivitis)
2. Xerostomia (dry mouth/dysphagia)
3. Arthritis
Complications: parotid enlargement (compensatory for dry mouth), dental caries, risk B cell lymphoma!
**autoimmune: SS-A (Ro) & SS-B (La) Abs, assoc. w/ RA **


Diseases that can cause Gout

#1: poor urate excretion (esp. w/ thiazide diuretics!)
2. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (low HGPRT -> shunt to urea cycle)
3. PRPP excess
4. VonGierke's disease (Glycogen storage -> glucose-6-phosphatase def.)


Infectious arthritis vs. Reactive arthritis/Reiter's syndrome

Infectious: CAN be from gonorrhea (also staph aureus, strep), w/ rash & often includes hand (tenosynovitis)

Reiter's = NON-gonococcal arthritis, ~2 wks AFTER GI or chlamydia infections, => Conjunctivitis, Urethritis, Arthritis (asymmetric, legs)


Seronegative arthropathies (4)

usually = HLA-B27+, more common in males.
1. Psoriatic arthritis: asymmetric/patchy, w/ dactylitis
2. Ankylosing Spondylitis ("AS")
=> spine/SI joint fusions, uveitis & aortic regurg! ("bamboo spine")
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (crohn's/UC; often w/ AS)
4. Reactive arthritis: post-chlamydia or GI inf., w/ urethritis


Symptoms/Complications of Sarcoidosis

1. restrictive lung disease (interstitial fibrosis)
2. Erythema nodosum
3. Bell's Palsy
4. Uveitis
5. hyperCa2+ (bc excess Vit D activation by granulomas)


60 yo woman complains of pain/stiffness in shoulders and hips bilaterally. Has had some fever, fatigue, and weight loss but NO muscle weakness. Also has frequent headaches.

Dx: Polymyalgia Rheumatica
labs: high ESR, normal CK
Risks: likely also has Temporal Arteritis!
Tx: low dose corticosteroids


Relationship between the Ureters and nearby landmarks

1. Ureters = just Lateral to the Internal iliac aa on each side
2. ureters pass UNDER the Gonadal vessels on each side
3. ureters pass OVER the Common iliac/External iliac aa bifurcation