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Flashcards in Anatomical Terms Deck (62):
1

Respiratory system

The organs involved in the exchange of gases between an
organism and the atmosphere.

2

Aerobic metabolism

Chemical and physical changes that take place within the cells
in the presence of oxygen.

3

Airway resistance

The restriction of airflow that is related to the diameter of the
airways.

4

Alveolar ventilation

The amount of inspired air that reaches the alveoli of the lungs.

5

Anaerobic
metabolism

Chemical and physical changes that take place within the cells
without the presence of oxygen.

6

Apneustic center

The respiratory center in the brainstem that intensifies and
prolongs inhalation.

7

Boyle’s law

The concept that the volume of a gas is inversely proportionate
to the pressure

8

Central
chemoreceptors

Receptors located in the medulla that are most sensitive to
changes in carbon dioxide and pH.

9

Compliance

The measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to
stretch, distend, and expand.

10

Dead air space

Anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where no gas
exchange occurs but where air collects during inhalation.

11

Deoxyhemoglobin

Hemoglobin that does not have any oxygen molecules
attached to it.

12

Dorsal respiratory
group (DRG)

Respiratory rhythm center located in the brainstem that
controls the rate and depth of normal quiet respiration.

13

Frequency of
ventilation

The number of ventilations in one minute.

14

Glycolysis

The breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid in the cells.

15

Irritant receptors

Receptors found in the airways that are sensitive to irritating
gases, aerosol, and particles and that result in a cough, bronchoconstriction, and increased ventilatory rate when
stimulated.

16

J-receptors

Receptors found in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli that
are sensitive to increases in the pressure in the capillary and
that cause rapid, shallow ventilation when stimulated.

17

Minute ventilation
(minute volume)

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute.

18

Peripheral
chemoreceptors

Receptors located in the aortic arch and the carotid bodies that
are somewhat sensitive to CO2 and pH but are most sensitive
to the level of oxygen in the arterial blood.

19

Pneumotaxic center

Located in the brainstem, it sends inhibitory impulses to the
apneustic center to turn off the inhalation before the lungs are
too full.

20

Respiratory control
centers

Located in the brain stem. Consists of four control centers: the
dorsal and ventral respiratory groups and the apneustic and
pneumotaxic centers

21

Stretch receptors

Receptors found in the smooth muscle of the airways that
monitor the size and volume of the lungs. These receptors
stimulate a decrease in the rate and volume of ventilation
when stretched by high tidal volumes to protect against lung
over-inflation.

22

Tidal volume

The amount of air breathed in and out in one normal
respiration.

23

Ventral respiratory
group (VRG)

Respiratory rhythm center located in the brainstem that has
both inspiratory and expiratory neurons. It becomes active and
stimulates accessory muscles when an increase in ventilatory
effort is necessary.

24

Laryngeal spasm

A contraction of the vocal cords that causes them to close and
prevents air from passing through into the trachea. Also called
laryngospasm.

25

Afterload

The force of contraction that the left ventricle has to generate
to overcome the resistance in the aorta to eject the blood.

26

Baroreceptors

Stretch-sensitive receptors located in the aortic arch and
carotid bodies that constantly measure the blood pressure.

27

Chemoreceptors

Receptors that monitor oxygen levels, carbon dioxide, and pH
in arterial blood.

28

Systemic vascular
resistance

The resistance of blood flow through a vessel based on the
diameter of the vessel

29

Cardiac output

The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle in one
minute.

30

Circulatory system

The system composed of the heart and blood vessels that
brings oxygen and nutrients to and takes wastes away from
body cells. Also called the cardiovascular system.

31

Frank-Starling law
of the heart

The concept that the stretch of the muscle fiber in the left
ventricle at the end of diastole determines the force necessary
to eject.

32

Hydrostatic
pressure

The blood pressure, or force exerted against the inside of
vessel walls; the "push" effect that forces fluid out of a
capillary.

33

Microcirculation

The flow of blood through the arterioles, capillaries, and
venules that is the site of exchange of gases, nutrients, and
waste products with the cells.

34

Plasma oncotic
pressure

The force created by the presence of large molecules that
tends to keep fluid inside a capillary by exerting a "pull" effect.
Also called colloid.

35

Preload

The pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of
diastole (resting phase of the cardiac cycle).

36

Stroke volume

Volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle during each
contraction.

37

Peripheral nervous system

That portion of the nervous system located outside the brain
and the spinal cord

38

Central nervous system

The Brain and the Spinal Cord

39

Integumentary system

The skin

40

Cyanosis

A blue-gray color of the mucous membranes and/or skin
that indicates inadequate oxygenation or poor perfusion.

41

Dead air space

Anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where no gas exchange occurs but where air collects during inhalation.

42

Minute volume

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one
minute. Also called minute ventilation

43

Residual volume

The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation.

44

Tidal volume

The amount of air breathed in and out in one normal
respiration.

45

Pituitary gland

Referred to as the “master gland” because is regulates growth, the function of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the pancreas, the gonads, the metabolism of fatty acids, blood sugar levels, and urinary functions. The pituitary gland has anterior and posterior parts.

46

Alpha 1 effects

- Vasoconstriction.
- In events that cause shock, the vessels in the skin constrict and shunt blood to the core of the body, resulting in pale and cool skin.
- Alpha1 effects also stimulate the sweat glands, causing the skin to become moist or clammy in states of shock.

- Norepinephrine causes primarily Alpha1 and Alpha2 effects

47

Alpha 2 effects

Thought to regulate the release of Alpha1.

48

Beta 1 effects

Affect the myocardium, increasing heart rate, contractile force, and speeding up the electrical impulses traveling through the conduction system of the heart

49

Beta 2 effects

Cause smooth muscles to relax, especially in the bronchioles.

50

# vertebrae in each part of spine

Cervical: 7
Thoracic: 12
Lumbar: 5
Sacram: 5 (fused)
Coccygeal: 4 (fused)

51

Body of spine

Thick & disk shaped, weight bearing portion of vertebrae

52

Articular process

A point of attachment for muscle lateral to spinous process (spine)

53

Spinous process

Posterior midline, boney prominence felt through skin of the back

54

Transverse process

Point of attachment for muscle lateral to the articular process

55

Vertebral foramen

In center of body, allows for passage of spinal cord

56

Brain stem

Part of brain that controls involuntary function

57

Diencephalon

Part of brain that controls sensory processing and is involved with body function control

58

Cerebrum

Part of brain involved in censory control

59

Cerebellum

Part of brain involved in coordination of balance

60

Vagus nerve

Controls parasympathetic nervous system

61

Sutures

Zigzagged joints that hold the cranium together

62

Physiological manifestation of stress

Cool, clammy skin
Increase in RR, pulse
Dilated pupils
Increased BP
Tensed muscles
Increase in blood sugar levels
Perspiration
Decreased circulation to GI tract