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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (30):
1

Six Indications of a Drug/Alcohol Emergency

1. Unresponsiveness
2. Respiratory difficulty
3. Fever
4. Tachycardia, Bradycardia, an Irregular Pulse
5. Vomiting with AMS
6. Seizures

2

General findings for CNS Stimulants (Secondary Assessment)

1. Excitability, elevated mood
2. agitation, apprehension, uncooperativeness
3. Tachycardia
4. Tachypnea
5. Dilated pupils
6. Dry mouth
7. Sweating
8. Increased blood pressure
9. Loss of appetite
10. Lack of sleep

3

General findings for CNS Depressants (Secondary Assessment)

1. Euphoria
2. Drowsiness
3. Sleepiness
4. Bradypnea and decreased tidal volume
5. Bradycardia
6. Hypotension
7. Pupils respond sluggishly to light

4

General findings for Narcotics (Secondary Assessment)

1. Bradycardia
2. Hypotension
3. Inadequate breathing
4. Cool, clammy skin
5. Lethargy
6. Constricted pupils
7. Nausea

5

General findings for Hallucinogens (Secondary Assessment)

1. Motor disturbances
2. Paranoia
3. Anxiety
4. Visual or auditory hallucinations
5. Tachycardia
6. Dilated pupils
7. Flushed face
8. Poor perception of time and distance

6

General findings for Volatile Inhalants (Secondary Assessment)

1. Excrement
2. Euphoria
3. Drunkenness
3. Aggressiveness
4. Depression
5. Headache
6. Nausea
7. Drowsiness
8. Swollen mucous membranes of the nose and mouth
9. Glazed eyes
10. Slurred speech
11. Hallucinations
12. Poor coordination
13. Erratic blood pressure and pulse
14. Paint or chemical stains about the nose and mouth

7

Stages of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

Stage 1: Alcoholic tremulousness (Difficulty concentrating, restlessness, irritability, insomnia, sweating, nausea, tremors

Stage 2: Alcoholic hallucinosis (Visual, auditory, or tactile hallucinations)

Stage 3: Withdrawal seizures

Stage 4: Delirium tremens (Confusion, inattentiveness, disorientation, fever, nausea, vomiting, incoherence, hyperirritability, hallucinations, insomnia, diaphoresis)


8

Routes of Exposure of a Drug

1. Ingestion
2. Inhalation
3. Injection
4. Absorption

9

Causes of food poisoning

Nonviruses (type of viruses, like stomach flu virus), Bacteria, Parasites, Toxic agents

10

Carbon monoxide versus oxygen binding to hemoglobin

CO bonds w/ 200x greater affinity

11

Signs of cyanide poisoning

1. a burning sensation in the mouth and throat
2. headache
3. confusion, agitated behavior
4. pulmonary edema
5. seizure
6. hypertension
7. tachycardia
8. progresses to hypotension, shock, coma, and death.

12

Signs of CO poisoning

Initial symptoms are headache, fatigue, and nausea/vomiting

Leads to severe hypoxia & death

13

Signs of caustic ingestion

Caustic ingestion= ingestion of acids or alkalis

Signs:
Drooling, difficulty swallowing, and pain to the mouth, chest, and stomach, burns around mouth and bleeding in esophagus and stomach

14

Signs of hydrocarbon poisoning

Hydrocarbons are in petroleum products, cleaning products

Signs:
Coughing, dyspnea, altered mental status, tachycardia, irregular heartbeat, cyanosis, nausea, vomiting, seizure, pneumonia, brain/kidney/heart injury, and death

15

Stages of Ethylene glycol overdose

Common component of radiator fluid, sweet smelling/tasting

Stage 1: (1-12 hrs) Similar to signs of intoxication

Stage 2: (12-24 hrs) Signs of cardiovascular /pulmonary distress (cyanosis, tachypnea, pulmonary edema, dyspnea).

Stage 3: (24-72 hrs) Problems with renal system (decrease in urine production (oliguria) to no urine production (anuria), bloody urine (hematuria), and low back pain (mainly in the flanks)).

16

Absorbed

Passage of a substance through skin or mucous membranes
upon contact.

17

Activated characol

A distilled charcoal in powder form that can adsorb many
times its weight in contaminants to prevent their absorption by
the body; no longer commonly administered in the emergency
care of patients who have ingested a poison.

18

Antidote

A substance that neutralizes the effects of a poison or a toxic
substance.

19

Drug abuse

Self-administration of drugs (or a single drug) in a manner that
is not in accord with approved medical or social patterns

20

Hallucinogens

Substances that cause hallucinations, or false perceptions not
based on reality; also called “psychedelics”.

21

Huffers

People who inhale vapors to "get high".

22

Ingested

Substance that is swallowed and enters the gastrointestinal
tract.

23

Inhaled

Breathing in a gas, vapor, fume, or aerosol into the lungs.

24

Injection

Forced introduction into the body through the skin, possibly
into a muscle or blood vessel, usually via a syringe, a bite, or a
sting.

25

Narcotics

CNS depressants derived from opium (opiates) or from
synthetic opium (opioids).

26

Pharming

Raiding others' home medicine supplies or using faked
prescriptions to obtain drugs.

27

Poision

Any substance—liquid, solid, or gas—that impairs health or
causes death by its chemical action when it enters the body or omes into contact with the skin.

28

Toxin

Drugs or substances that are poisonous to humans and cause
certain adverse effects that may ultimately lead to death;
“toxin” sometimes considered a synonym to “poison”;
sometimes defined more narrowly as a poisonous substance
of plant or animal origin.

29

Volatile inhalants

Substances that are easily vaporized and inhalable.

30

Withdrawal

A syndrome that occurs after a period of abstinence from the
alcohol or drugs to which a person's body has become
accustomed.