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Flashcards in anatomy Deck (10):
1

aorta

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Aorta
- Starts at aortic valve and ends at bifurcation common iliac L4
- ascending 5cm, give off R and L coronaries
- Decending starts at T4 to aortic opening of diaphragm T12

  • Gives of visceral branches – pericardial, bronchial, oesophageal, mediastinal, phrenic

- Abdominal aorta

  • Also gives off inferior phrenic
  • Celiac trunk - foregut (left gastric, common hepatic, splenic
  •  Superior mesenteric – midgut (inferior pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, ileal, ileocolic, right and middle colic)
  • Inferior mesenteric – hindgut (left colic, sigmoid, superior rectal 

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2

neck arteries

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- brachiocephalic divides to right subclavian and common carotid behind right sternocalvicular joint
- right common carotid  - ascends in carotid sheath and divides at C4/upper boader thyroid cartilage
- right subclavian – runs over lung apex to lateral boarder 1st rib to become axillary artery

  • gives off 5 branches – vertebral, internal thoracic (missing), thyrocervical, costocervical, dorsal scapular need (missing)

- left common carotid – ascends behind sternocalvicular joint
- left subclavian, same 5 branches as right
- external carotid – main blood supply to head and neck, 6 branches then bifurcates with carotid

  • superior thyroid - missing
  • ascending pharyngeal - missing
  • lingual - missing
  • facial
  • occipital
  • posterior auricular- missing
  • superficial temporal (terminal)
  • maxillary (terminal)

- internal carotid – supplies intracranial contents, posterolateral to external then medial at C2 then enters skull through carotid canal. 10 branches inside the skull (missing)

  • caroticotympnic and pterygoid
  •  cavernous, hypophyseal, meningeal (missing)
  • ophthalmic
  • anterior cerebral
  • middle cerebral
  • posterior communicating
  • anterior choroidal (? Missing)

 

 

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3

external carotid

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4

internal carotid

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5

Upper limb arteries

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- axillary from lateral boarder 1st rib, to brachial at lower boarder teres major, give off

  • o superior thoracic
  • o thoroco-acromial
  • o lateral thoracic, subscapular
  • o circ humeral (ant and post)

- brachial until bifurcates into radial and ulner at antecubital fossa, gives off

  • o profunda brachii, ulnar collateral, nutrient to humerous

- radial lies on radius along medial border brachioradialis, enters lateral wrist through anatomical snuffbox to terminate at deep palmer arch, gives off

  • o radial recurrent, muscular, carpal, metacarpal, superficial and deep palmar arch

- ulnar – goes with ulnar nerve laterally lyeing on flexor digitorum profundus, enters wrist superior to flexor retinaculum and terminates in superficial palmar arch, gives off

  • o ulnar recurrent, common interosseous, anterior interosseous, muscular,carpal, superificial and deep palmar arches

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6

lower limb arteries

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- common iliac from aortic bifurcation at L4
- external iliac, travels anterolaterally, deep to midinguinal point to become femoral artery, gives off
o inferior epigatric (pubic and cremasteric), deep circumflex iliac
- internal iliac, bifurcates into ant and post trunks, supply pelvic organs

  • genitalia, body wall, lower limb (ant) and gluteal muscles (post)

- femoral artery, lat to fem vein and medial to femoral nerve, enters popliteal fossa through adductor hiatus, gives off

  •  superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, external pudendal, profunda femoris with perforating arterial branches, descending genicular branch

- popliteal artery divides into ant and post tibial arteries
- anterior tibial – anterior of interosseous membrane and enters ankle deep to extensor retinaculum to become dorsalis pedis, gives off

  • knee supply, anterior compartment, ankle, foot

- posterior tibial – descends deep to gastroc with tibial nerve, between medial malleolus and calcaneus to give post tibial pulse and medial and lateral plantar arteris, supplies posterior compartment gives off

  • peroneal to fibular and lateral compartment

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7

Head and neck veins

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- Posterior division retromandibular vein and Posterior auricular vein drain into:
- External jugular vein

  • Drains scalp and face
  • Runs from angle mandible to midpoint calvicle
  • Enters sublavian vein

- Anterior division of retromandibular vein enters Facial vein, facial vein and neck tributaries drain into:
- Internal jugular vein

  • Runs from jugular foramen and within the carotid sheath
  • Joins subclavian vein behind sternal end of clavicle to form brachiocephalic vein

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8

leg veins

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- great saphenous vein

  • from medial aspect of foot and in front of medial malleolus
  • ascends up medial side to knee and up to thigh where enters saphenous foramen and joins the femoral vein

- small saphenous vein

  • from the lateral aspect of the foot and behind lateral malleolus
  • ascends in midline posteriorly and joins the popliteal vein after running between two heads of gastrocnemius

- posterior tibial vein – runs with the posterior tibial artery and unites with anterior tibial vein to form popliteal vein
- femoral vein

  • continuation of popliteal vein
  • emerges from adductor canal and enters the femoral triangle

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9

arm veins

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- dorsal network of hand veins drains into cephalic and basilic
- cephalic vein

  • runs on radial aspect of forearm
  • receives median cubital branch before entering anterior elbow and ascending lateral to biceps brachii before terminating in axillary vein

- basilic vein

  • runs of ulnar aspect of forearm
  • revieces a median cubital branch before ascending on medial aspect of anterior elbow
  • continues as axillary vein beyond teres major

- axillary vein
o starts at teres major and ends opposite first rib to continue as subclavian vein

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10

thorax and abdo veins

Thorax
- brachiocephalic vein

  • formed by junction of internal jugular and subclavian veins behind sternal clavicle
  • longer left and shorter right veins join behind first costal cartilage to become superior vena cava

abdomen

- external iliac

  • continuation of femoral vein (draining leg), joined by internal iliac (draining pelvis)
  • forms common iliac in front of sacroiliac joint

- common iliac

  • left and right ascend to unite at L5 to form the IVC