Anatomy 2- Differential Diagnosis of Chest Pain Flashcards Preview

1st Year - Cardiology > Anatomy 2- Differential Diagnosis of Chest Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 2- Differential Diagnosis of Chest Pain Deck (64):
1

What are the 3 links that can be made between the heart and nerves?

Dual motor control of the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetics)
Visceral afferent nerves
Conducting system of the heart and arrhythmia

2

How does the autonomic innervation reach the heart? - sympathetics, parasympathetics and visceral afferent nerves

Via the cardiac plexus

3

What is the effective the sympathetic nerves on the heart? (2)

Increases heart rate
Increases contractility

4

What is the effect of the parasympathetic nerves on the heart?

Decreases heart rate

5

What types (2) of viscera afferent nerves are involved in the heart?

Pain fibres
Visceral reflex afferents (e.g. from baroreceptors)

6

How do pain fibres travel to the spinal cord?

Alongside sympathetic nerves

7

Where do visceral reflex afferents mainly travel in?

The vagus nerve

8

For sympathetic innervation, what is the neurotransmitter than synapses between the axon of the presynaptic neurone and cell body of postsynaptic neurone?

Acetylcholine

9

For synaptic innervation, what is the neurone that connects between the ganglion and organ?

Noradrenaline

10

What do presynaptic sympathetic fibres from the brain do?

Travel inferiorly within spinal cord tracts and then exit the spinal cord in one of T1-L2/3 spinal nerves (thoracolumbar) and then can do 1 of 5 options

11

What are the 5 things that sympathetic signals which have traveled within the spinal cord and exited in one of T1-L2/3 can do?
What are the 3 options that are involved with the sympathetic stimulation of the heart?

Go into the ganglion (in sympathetic chain) of that level and synapse
Travel superiorly in the sympathetic chain to another ganglion and synapse
Travel inferiorly in the sympathetic chain to another ganglion and synpase
Pass through the sympathetic chain ganglion without synopsis, as abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves, to synapse in one of the pre-vertebral ganglia of the abdomen
Pass straight to the adrenal medulla without synapsing as an abdominopelvic splanchnic nerve
Top 3 are options for stimulation of heart

12

What are the names of the cervical sympathetic ganglia?

Superior
Middle
Inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia

13

What are the names of the postsynaptic fibres which provide sympathetics to the heart and lungs?

Cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves

14

What ganglia have nerves that come out of them to produce the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves?

T1-T5 ganglia and cervical ganglia

15

For essentially midline organs such as the heart is there unilateral or bilateral sympathetic innervation?

Bilateral

16

What is the cardiac plexus made up of?

Sympathetic fibres
Parasympathetic fibres
Visceral afferent fibres

17

What is the neurotransmitter released by both the presynaptic and postsynaptic fibres of parasympathetic fibres?

Acetylcholine

18

How do the parasympathetic reach the organs?

Through cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and the sacral spinal nerves

19

How many parasympathetic ganglia are in the head?

4 (1 for occulomotor nerve , 2 for facial nerve and 1 for glossopharyngeal nerve)

20

How does the presynaptic parasympathetic fibres from the vagus nerve reach the organs?

Synapse onto postsynaptic neurones (with short axons in ganglia within the walls of the organs of the chest and upper abdomen)

21

What provides parasympathetic innervation to the organs of the lower abdomen, pelvis and perineum?

The pelvic splanchnic nerves

22

What does the vagus nerve innervate?

All the organs from the neck, chest and abdomen as far as the end of the midgut

23

Where does the vagus nerve attach to the heart?

At the SA node

24

What travels in the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves?

Postsynaptic cardiac sympathetic efferent
Cardiac visceral afferent

25

Where are the visceral afferent nerve endings in the heart located for stretch and chemicals? (8)

Inner aortic arch
Pulmonary trunk
Vena cavae
Around the SA node
Outflow tracts from both ventricles
Papillary muscles
Root of aorta
IV septum

26

What are chemoreceptors?

any of the special cells or organs adapted for excitation by chemical substances and located outside the central nervous system.

27

What are 2 examples of chemoreceptors?

Aortic bodies (in root of aorta)
Carotid bodies

28

What is pain? (definition)

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage

29

In anatomical/ physiological terms, what is pain?

Stimulation of sensory receptor
Afferent action potential reaches brain
We "feel" the pain according to the part of the brain that is stimulated by the action potential

30

What are the potential sources of central chest pain? (2)

Somatic
Visceral (organ)

31

Typical nature of somatic central chest pain?

Sharp, stabbing, well localised

32

Is the fibrous pericardium and parietal pleura somatic or visceral?

Somatic

33

What is the typical nature of visceral central chest pain?

Dull, aching, nauseating, poorly localised

34

What is radiating central chest pain?

Pain felt in the centra of the chest and felt spreading from there to other places e.g. upper limbs, back, neck

35

What is referred pain?

Pain is felt only at a site remote from the actual area of injury or disease

36

What happens when someone is hurt in the T5 dermatome?

Skin mechanoreceptors in the T5 dermatome are stimulated
AP propagated
Pain pathway crosses in spinal cord
AP travels to the brain until sensation reaches consciousness at cerebral cortex

37

Where do somatic afferent signals arrive bringing somatic sensations into consciousness?

Primary somatosensory area - postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe

38

Where do APs originate bringing about contractions of somatic skeletal muscle?

Precentral gyrus of frontal lobe (primary somatomotor area)

39

What is the name of the fissure between the frontal and parietal lobes?

Central sulcus

40

What are potential causes for "sharp" somatic chest pain?

Herpes zoster (shingles) - patients with shingles developing in T4/T5 dermatome may present with central chest pain
Muscle, joint and back e.g. pectoralis major or intercostal muscle strain
Parietal pleura and fibrous pericardium e.g. pleurisy and pericarditis

41

What are some causes of "dull" (visceral) central chest pain sources? (5)

Trachea (tracheitis)
Oesophagus (oesophagitis)
Heart (angina and myocardial infarction)
Aorta (ruptured aneurysm or aortic arc)
Abdominal viscerae (e.g. gastritis, etc.)

42

What is the name of the remnant of the ductus arterioles connecting PT to arch of aorta?

Ligamentum arteriosum

43

How do visceral afferents pass to the brain from the organs?

They travel alongside the sympathetic (splanchnic) nerves except at the spinal cord they enter via posterior roots with somatic sensory nerves

44

Where visceral afferent APs pass in the brain?

Bilaterally to thalamus and hypothalamus then diffuse areas of the cortex

45

If the pain is originating in a somatic structure, where will the pain radiate?

Along the affected dermatome

46

Where can pain from the heart radiate?

Radiation is to the dermatomes supplied by the spinal cord levels at which the cardiac visceral afferents enter the sympathetic chain/ spinal cord i.e. bilaterally to cervical and upper thoracic dermatomes

47

What is the principle behind referred pain?

(very similar principle to radiating pain) - due to afferent (sensory) fibres from soma and afferent fibres from viscera entering the spinal cord at the same levels, the brain can choose to believe that the pain signals coming from the organ, are actually coming from the soma

48

Where can cardiac referred pain be felt?

Upper limbs (especially left side)
Back
Neck
Jaw

49

What is a myocardial infarction?

Irreversible death (necrosis) of part of the myocardium due to occlusion of its arterial blood supply

50

What is another name for the lateral branch of the LAD?

Diagonal branch

51

Does the right coronary artery or left coronary artery supply most of the heart in most people?

Right - right dominant pattern (some people also have an unusual extreme right dominant pattern)

52

What kind of coronary artery dominancy do 15% of patients have?

Left dominant pattern

53

Which coronary artery is most likely to be narrowed/ occluded?

LAD of LCA (40-50%)

54

Which coronary artery is the second most likely to be narrowed/ occluded?

RCA (30-40%)

55

Which coronary artery is the 3rd most likely to be occluded/ narrowed?

Circumflex branch of LCA (15-20%)

56

Which coronary artery is the 4th most likely to be occluded/ narrowed?

Left (main stem) coronary artery

57

During CABG, where are the grafts anastomosed?

Proximally to the ascending aorta and distally to distal of the narrowing

58

What are 3 commonly used grafts for CABG?

Radial artery
Great saphenous vein (superficial vein of the lower limb)
Internal thoracic (internal mammary) artery

59

What develop if the conducting tissue of the heart is damaged by ischaemia?

An arrhythmia can develop

60

What provides blood supply to the SA node in about 60% of patients?

SA nodal branch of the RCA

61

What provides blood supply to the AV node in about 80% of patients?

AV nodal branch from RCA

62

What 2 arteries provide blood supply to the left and right bundle branches?

LADPosterior interventricular artery

63

What type of arrhythmia can develop if the AV node is damaged?

Complete heart block

64

What type of heart block can develop if the bundle branch is damaged?

Bundle branch block