Anatomy 4: Pelvic Organs - Female Genital Organs and Peritoneal Reflections Flashcards Preview

Block I: Reproduction & Sexuality > Anatomy 4: Pelvic Organs - Female Genital Organs and Peritoneal Reflections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 4: Pelvic Organs - Female Genital Organs and Peritoneal Reflections Deck (42):
1

Label the 10 parts of this saggittal section

  • Ureter
  • Vas deferens
  • Rectum
  • Coccyx
  • Anorectal junction
  • Umbilical artery
  • Ureteric orifice
  • Bladder
  • Pubic symphysis
  • Prostatis urethra

2

Function of the urogenital hiatus

Trasmit the urethra and the vagina in females

3

What forms the fornices of the vagina?

The cervis pushes into the anteriorsuperior surface of the vagina --> fornices between itself and the walls of the vagina

4

Two shapes of the cervix

  • Nulliparous
  • Parous

5

Define flexion in terms of the uterus's position and the normal position

Angle between the uterine body and cervix. Normal = anteflexed

NOTE: Angle 1 in the diagram

6

Define version in terms of the uterine position and its normal position

Angle between the cervical canal and the vagina. Normal = anteverted.

NOTE: Angle 2 in the diagram

7

4 axes of the female reproductive system

  • Longitudinal uterine axis
  • Longitudinal cervical axis
  • Longitudinal body axis
  • Longitudinal vaginal axis

8

Define anteflexion

THe uterine body is flexed or bent anteriorly relative to the cervix

9

Define anteversion

The cervis and uterus are tipped anteriosuperiorly relative to the axis of the vagina

10

4 parts of the uterus

  • Fundus
  • Body
  • Isthmus
  • Cervix

11

3 layers of the uterine wall

  • Perimetrium
  • Myometrium
  • Endometrium

12

3 parts of the cervix

  • Internal os
  • Cervical canal
  • External os

13

Most common tumors of the female genital tract

Fibroids (40% of women have by the age of 40)

14

Define fibroids

Noncancerous (benign) growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus. In most cases there is more than one fibroid in the uterus

15

Fibroid effects

Do not always cause symptoms, but their size and location can cause pain and heavy bleeding

16

Who gets fibroids?

  • May be genetic predisposition
    • Increased incidence in certain ethnic and racial groups
    • Predisposition in some families

17

2 muscular supports of the uterus

  • Levator ani and its fascia
  • Perineal body (in perineum)

18

3 ligaments of the endopelvis fascia supporting the uterus

  • Sacrocervical ligaments
  • transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments
  • Pubocervical ligaments

19

3 types of support for the uterus

  • Muscular support
  • Endopelvis fascia
  • Broad ligament and its associated structures such as the round ligament of the uterus

20

Function and location of the sacrocervical ligaments

  • Attach the cervis and upper end of the vagina to the lower end of the sacrum
  • In the uterosacral fold

21

Function of the transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments

  • Attach the cervix and upper end of the vagina to the lateral pelvic walls
  • Contain the uterine and vaginal vessels

22

Function of the pubocervical ligaments

Attach the cervix to the pubic bones

23

What occurs if the support for the uterus becomes stretched and lax?

The cervix may descend, for varying degrees, into the vagina or even into the vestibule

24

5 parts of the fallopian tube

  • Fimbrae
  • Infundibulum
  • Ampulla
  • Isthmus
  • Intramural

25

Usual site of fertilization

Ampulla

26

4 functions of the fallopian tube

  • Transport eggs from ovary to uterus
  • Site of fertilization of eggs by sperm
  • Transports dividing zygote to uterine cavity
  • Provides nourishment for the zygote

27

Position of the fallopian tube

Upper border of the broad ligament

28

Percentage of pregnancies that are ectopic

2%

29

Most common (95%) location of ectopic gestations

WIthin the Fallopian tubes (see red arrows)

30

Ectopic pregnancy that is rare (1.4%) but live births can occur

Abdominal pregnancy

31

Location of the ovarian artery and vein

In the suspensory ligament of the ovary

32

3 parts of the broad ligament

  • Mesosalpinx
  • Mesovarium
  • Mesometrium

33

Define the broad ligament

two layers of the ligament sheet on either side of the uterus

34

Relationship of the ovary to the broad ligament

Attachd to the back side of the posterior layer of the broad ligament by its own mesothelium called the mesovarium

35

Ligament on the medial side of the ovary to the uterus

Round ligament of the ovary (or ovarian ligament)

36

Describe the trajectory of the round ligament of the uterus

  1. Extends from the uterus near where the ovarian ligament joins the uterus
  2. Goes through the inguinal canal to the labia major

37

What did the round ligament of the uterus and the ovarian ligament form?

A core of tissue that was the gubernaculum in development (in a male, this would have pulled the gonad from inside the body through the inguinal canal to the scrotum along with the gonadal vessels

38

8 female peritoneal reflections

  1. Anterior abdominal wall
  2. Superior to the pubic bone
  3. Superior surface of the bladder
  4. Vesicouterine pouch*
  5. Over the fundus and down the posterior surface of the uterus
  6. Rectouterine pouch*
  7. Anterior and lateral surfaces of the superior 1/3 of the rectum
  8. Onto the posterior pelvic wall and posterior to the sigmoid colon to form the sigmoid mesocolon (in the abdominal cavity)

39

Define the vesicouterine pouch

Periotoneal reflection on the superior surface of bladder then onto the anterior surface of the uterus (4)

40

Define the rectouterine pouch

Pouch of Douglas -- peritoneal reflection that is on the posterior fornix of the vagina then onto the anterior surface of the middle 1/3 of the rectum (6)

41

8 male peritoneal reflections

  1. Anterior abdominal wall
  2. Superior to the pubic bone
  3. Superior surface of the bladder
  4. Posterior surface of the bladder
  5. Over the superior ends of the seminal vesicles
  6. Rectovesical pouch*
  7. Anterior and lateral surfaces of the superior 1/3 of the rectum
  8. Onto the posterior pelvic wall and posterior to the sigmoid colon to form the sigmoid mesocolon (in abdominal cavity)

42

Define the rectovesical pouch

Peritoneal reflection that includes the back of the bladder and over the seminal vesicles and then onto the anterior surface of the middle 1/3 of the rectum (6)