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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (742):
1

What is the superior border of the femoral triangle?

the inguinal ligament

2

What is the lateral border of the femoral triangle?

the medial aspect of the sartorius muscle

3

what is the medial border of the femoral triangle?

the lateral aspect of the adductor longus muscle

4

what muscles make up the floor of the femoral triangle?

iliopsoas muscle laterally
pectineus muscle medially

5

What 4 structures does the femoral triangle contain?

lateral --> medial
-femoral nerve
-femoral artery
-femoral vein
-femoral canal

6

Where are the deep inguinal lymph nodes located?

femoral canal

7

What are the femoral artery and vein enveloped in?

femoral sheath

8

what fascia from the abdominal wall makes up the femoral sheath superiorly?

transversalis fascia and iliopsoas fascia

9

What does the femoral sheath blend inferiorly with?

the adventita of the femoral artery and vein

10

where is the femoral nerve in relation to the femoral sheath?

femoral nerve is lateral to the femoral sheath

11

from what spinal nerves does the femoral nerve arise from?

L2, L3, L4
formed in the lumbar plexus

12

what type of nerve is the saphenous nerve? (with regards to function)

sensory nerve

13

what nerve does the saphenous nerve branch off of?

the femoral nerve

14

When branching off the femoral nerve and leaving the adductor canal, what 2 muscles does the saphenous nerve pass between?

sartorius muscle
gracilis muscle

15

What compartment of the thigh is the gracilis muscle in?

medial compartment

16

What does the saphenous nerve supply?

-fascia and skin of the anteromedial aspects of the knee and leg
-fascia and skin of the medial aspect of the foot

17

when the saphenous nerve makes its way down to the foot from the knee, what vein does it accompany?

the great saphenous vein

18

What is a femoral hernia?

when peritoneum (with or without abdominal contents) herniates into the femoral canal through the femoral ring

19

what does a femoral hernia usually present as?

a painful lump in the groin

20

what does the femoral canal contain?

deep inguinal lymph nodes
adipose tissue

21

how are the deep inguinal lymph nodes positioned in the femoral canal?

in a chain

22

which artery do the medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries emerge from?

profunda femoris artery

23

what part of the body do the medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries supply?

the majority of the head of the femur

24

What is the inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis?

inguinal ligament

25

what is an aponeurosis?

flattened tendon

26

From what 2 bony features does the inguinal ligament run between?

ASIS
pubic tubercle

27

What does the medial half of the inguinal ligament contain?

inguinal canal

28

What does the inguinal canal contain in males?

spermatic cord

29

What does the inguinal canal contain in females?

the round ligament

30

How do the femoral vessels, femoral nerve and the iliopsoas muscle/combined tendon enter or leave the lower limb?

by passing posterior to the inguinal ligament in the retroinguinal space then into the femoral triangle

31

What is the name of the deep fascia of the thigh?

fascia lata

32

Where is the origin of the iliopsoas? (ie attachment of the iliacus and attachment of the psoas major)

iliacus: iliac fossa
psoas major: lumbar transverse processes

33

Where is the insertion of the iliopsoas? (ie the attachment of the iliacus and the attachment of the psoas major)

lesser trochanter of the femur (for both)

34

what is the function of the iliopsoas muscle?

flexion at the hip

35

what is the origin of the sartorius muscle?

ASIS

36

what is the insertion of the sartorius muscle?

medial aspect of the proximal tibia

37

what is the function of the sartorius muscle?

flexion at hip and knee
also externally rotates the hip

38

what is the nerve supply to the sartorius muscle?

femoral nerve

39

how many proximal attachments does the quadriceps femoris have?

4

40

what is the origin of the quadriceps femoris- rectus femoris head?

ASIS

41

what is the origin of the quadriceps femoris- vastus lateralis?

shaft of the femur

42

what is the origin of the quadriceps femoris-vastus intermedius?

shaft of the femur

43

what is the origin of the quadriceps femoris-vastus medius?

shaft of the femur

44

what is the insertion of the quadriceps femoris?

patella then tibial tuberosity

45

what is the function of the quadriceps femoris?

extension of the knee

46

what nerve supplies the quadriceps femoris?

femoral nerve

47

What ligament is hit with a tendon hammer during a 'knee jerk' test?

patellar ligament

48

what does hitting the patellar ligament with a tendon hammer cause normally?

reflex contraction of the quadriceps and extension of the knee joint

49

Where are the adductor muscle group in thigh located?

medial compartment

50

what are the 5 adductor muscles in the thigh?

gracilis
adductor brevis
adductor longus
adductor magnus
obturator externus

51

what adductor muscle also has a hamstring part to it?

adductor magnus

52

what adductor muscle in the thigh is the most medial?

gracilis

53

what is the most posterior adductor muscle in the thigh?

adductor magnus

54

where is adductor brevis in relation to adductor longus?

adductor brevis is superior and posterior to the adductor longus

55

where are the origins of the adductor muscles in the thigh?

inferior pubic rami
(ischial tuberosity for hamstring part of adductor magnus)

56

where are the insertions of the adductor muscles in the thigh?

the linea aspera of the femur
or
adductor tubercle of the tibia

57

where is the linea aspera of the femur?

posterior surface

58

what nerves supply the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

all innervated by the obturator nerve (L2,3,4) except the hamstring part of the adductor magnus which is innervated by the tibial nerve

59

through what foramen of the hip bone do the obturator nerve, artery and vein enter the medial compartment of the thigh?

obturator foramen

60

where does the obturator nerve divide into anterior and posterior branches?

upper border of the adductor brevis

61

what does the anterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh branch off of?

femoral nerve (L2,3,4)

62

what does the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh branch off of?

lumbosacral plexus (L2,3)

63

what supplies the medial cutaneous innervation of the thigh?

cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve (L2,3,4)

64

what lymph nodes does lymph following the great saphenous vein drain into?

superficial inguinal lymph nodes

65

where are superficial inguinal lymph nodes located?

in superficial fascia around the great saphenous vein

66

where are the 2 places lymph from superficial inguinal lymph nodes can drain?

external iliac lymph nodes
deep inguinal lymph nodes

67

what lymph nodes does lymph following the small saphenous vein drain into?

popliteal lymph nodes

68

where are popliteal lymph nodes located?

popliteal fossa

69

where does lymph from popliteal lymph nodes drain?

deep inguinal lymph nodes

70

where does lymph from deep inguinal lymph nodes drain?

external iliac lymph nodes

71

ultimately, where does all lymph from the lower limb drain?

external iliac nodes

72

which head of the quadriceps femoris is most superficial?

rectus femoris

73

what is the name of the opening in the distal tendon of the adductor magnus into the popliteal fossa?

adductor hiatus

74

what happens to the femoral vein and artery as they pass through the adductor hiatus into the popliteal fossa?

renamed popliteal artery and vein

75

What type of bone is the patella?

a sesamoid bone
(embedded within the patella tendon)

76

what is a sesamoid bone?

a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle

77

what head of the quadriceps femoris is also involved in flexion at the hip- in addition to the usual function of extension at the knee?

rectus femoris

78

why has the rectus femoris got an additional function (flexion of the hip)?

because unlike the other quadriceps, it also spans over the hip joint- not just the knee joint

79

what combination of muscles makes up the iliopsoas muscle?

psoas major muscle
iliacus muscle

80

what muscle is the most powerful hip flexor?

iliopsoas mucle

81

What are the 6 regions of the lower limb?

gluteal
femoral
knee
leg
ankle
foot

82

What region of the lower limb is the 'odd-one out' because it doesn't have an anterior and posterior part?

gluteal
(only found posteriorly, no anterior part)

83

What are the 2 distinct muscle groups of the gluteal region?

superficial muscle group
deep muscle group

84

What are the 4 muscles in the superficial muscle group of the gluteal region?

gluteus maximus
gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fascia latae

85

describe the positions of the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus relative to each other?

gluteus maximus is the most superficial
gluteus medius is in the middle
gluteus minimus is the most deep

86

what are the functions of the superficial muscle group of the gluteal region?

extensors, abductors and medial rotators of the thigh

87

what innervates the gluteus maximus?

inferior gluteal nerve

88

what innervates the gluteus medius?

superior gluteal nerve

89

what innervates the gluteus minimus?

superior gluteal nerve

90

what innervates the tensor fascia latae?

superior gluteal nerve

91

what muscles don't contract properly when there is a problem with the inferior gluteal nerve? and what is this known as?

gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fascia latae

Trendelenburg's Gait

92

What are the 5 muscles of the deep muscle group of the gluteal region?

piriformis
obturator internus
superior gemelli
inferior gemelli
quadratus femoris

93

the superior and inferior gemelli lie on either side of what muscle?

obturator internus

94

when the skin and fascia has been removed, what are the 2 muscles which can be seen in the gluteal region?
(ie most superficial muscles of the gluteal region?)

tensor fascia latae
gluteus maximus

95

what is the position of the tensor fascia latae in relation to the gluteus maximus?

tensor fascia latae is lateral to the gluteus maximus

96

when the skin, fascia and the most superficial muscles of the gluteal region (tensor fascia latae and gluteus maximus) have been removed, what muscles can be seen in the gluteal region?
(name from superior to inferior)

gluteal medius
piriformis
superior gemelli
obturator inturnus
internal gemelli
quadratus femoris

97

what is the function of the deep muscle group of the gluteal region?

lateral rotators of thigh
hip stabilisers

98

what innervates all of the deep muscle group of the gluteal region?

sacral plexus

99

what do nerves enter/exit the pelvis an perineum via?

greater and lesser sciatic foramen

100

What 2 ligaments split the greater and lesser sciatic notches into greater and lesser sciatic foramen?

sacrotuberous ligament
sacrospinous ligament

101

what does the sacrotuberous ligament run between?

sacrum and ischial tuberosity

102

what does the sacrospinous ligament run between?

sacrum and ischial spine

103

the gluteal region is divided into quadrants for injections, what region should be used for injections?

superolateral quadrant

104

From what spinal nerves is the sciatic nerve made of?

L4-S3

105

From what spinal nerves in the pudendal nerve made of?

S2,3,4

106

What areas of the body does the pudendal nerve supply?

pernieum

107

what muscles separate the pelvis from the perineum?

pelvic floor muscles

108

From what spinal nerves in the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh made of?

S1,2,3

109

What areas of the body does the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh supply?

skin of the:
posterior thigh,
popliteal
upper medial thigh
lateral perineum

110

Where does the sciatic nerve exit the pelvis?

greater sciatic foramen

111

what is the usually most lateral nerve to exit the greater sciatic foramen?

sciatic nerve

112

The sciatic nerve exits the pelvis just inferior to what muscle?

piriformis

113

what is the name of the artery which supplies blood to the sciatic nerve?

artery to the sciatic nerve

114

What areas of the gluteal region does the sciatic nerve supply?

none

115

The sciatic nerve bifurcates into what 2 nerves?

tibial nerve (greater section of divied)
common fibular

116

Where usually does the sciatic nerve bifurcate into the tibial nerve and the common fibular nerve?

distal 1/3 thigh
but can occur anywhere from gluteals to popliteal fossa

117

compare the tibial nerve to common fibular nerve in terms of size and relative position?

tibial nerve: larger and medial
common fibular: smaller and lateral

118

what is the roof of the femoral triangle made of?

deep fasica

119

What is the name of the condition where increased pressure in a body compartment affects the function of the muscles of nerves?

compartment syndrome

120

What is the cause of the increased pressure in compartment syndrome?

swelling of tissue
increase in fluid (bleeding or oedema)

121

what is used to relieve the pressure in emergency compartment syndrome?

fasciotomy

122

What are the 3 muscle compartments in the lower limb?

anterior
posterior
lateral

123

What are the 3 muscle compartments in the thigh?

anterior
posterior
medial

124

What are the 4 muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh?

pectineus
iliopsoas
sartorius
quadriceps femoris (rectus femoris; vastus lateralis, intermedius, medialis)

125

what muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh are flexors of the thigh? (hip flexors)

iliopsoas
pectineus
sartorius

126

what muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh are extensors of the leg?

quadriceps femoris

127

what is the innervation of the iliopsoas muscle?

iliacus muscle- femoral nerve (L2,3,4)
psoas major- (L1,2,3)

128

what is the innervation of the pectineus muscle?

femoral nerve (L2,3,4)

129

what is the innervation of the sartorius muscle?

femoral nerve (L2,3,4)

130

what is the innervation of the quadriceps femoris muscle?

femoral nerve (L2,3,4)

131

what innervates the adductor longus?

obturator nerve (L2,3,4)

132

what innervates the adductor magnus?

obturator nerve (L2,3,4)
hamstring part = tibial nerve

133

what innervates te gracilis?

obturator nerve (L2,3,4)

134

what innervates the adductor brevis?

obturator nerve (L2,3,4)

135

what innervates the obrurator externus?

obturator nerve (L2,3,4)

136

the obturator externus is an adductor muscle found in the medial compartment of the thigh, but unlike the other adductor muscles what is its main function?

lateral rotation of the thigh

137

What are the 4 muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh?

semimembranosus
semitendinous
biceps femoris (long head)
biceps femoris (short head)

138

which muscle in the posterior compartment of the thigh is the most lateral?

biceps femoris (short head)

139

what innervataes the semitendinosus?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

140

what innervates the semimembranosus?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

141

what innervates the biceps femoris?

tibial division of the scaitic nerve (L5, S1,2)

short head = common fibular division of hte sciatic nerve

142

what are the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg?

tibialis anterior
extensor hallicus longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius

143

what is the function of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg?

dorsiflexion of the ankle
extension of the toes

144

what innervates the tibial anterior?

deep fibular nerve (L4,5)

145

what innervates the extensor digitorum longus?

deep fibular nerve (L4,5)

146

what innervates the extensor hallicus longus?

deep fibular nerve (L4,5)

147

what innervates the fibularis tertius?

deep fibular nerve (L4,5)

148

what are the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?

fibularis longus
fibularis brevis

149

what is the function of the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg?

eversion of the foot
weak plantarflex of the ankle

150

what innervates the fibularis longus?

superficial fibular nerve (L5, S1,2)

151

what innervates the fibularis brevis?

superficial fibular nerve (L5, S1,2)

152

what does the common fibular nerve bifurcate into?

superficial fibular nerve
deep fibular nerve

153

what are the 2 groups of muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg?

superficial group
deep group

154

what is the function of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg?

plantarflexion of the ankle

155

what is the function of the deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg?

plantarflexion of the ankle
flexion of the toes

156

what are the 4 muscles of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg?

gastrocnemius
soleus
plantaris
popliteus

157

what are the 3 muscles of the deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg?

tibialis posterior
flexor hallicus longus
flexoror digitorum longus

158

what is the innervation of the soleus?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

159

what is the innervation of the gastrocnemius?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

160

what is the innervation of the plantaris?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

161

what is the innervation of the popliteus?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

162

what is the innervation of the flexor hallicus longus?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

163

what is the innervation of the flexor digitorum longus?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

164

what is the innervatio of the tibialis posterior?

tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1,2)

165

what is the superolateral border of the popliteal fossa?

biceps femoris tendon

166

what is the superomedial border of the popliteal fossa?

semimembranosus tendon

167

what are the inferior borders of the popliteal fossa?

gastrocnemius
(2 heads to form a diamond shape)

168

what are the contents of the popliteal fossa?

-fat
-terminal small saphenous vein
-popliteal vessels
-tibial and common fibular nerves

169

what are the articulations of the hip joint?

head of femur and acetabulum of hip

170

What are the 3 ligaments which spiral from the pelvis to the femur?

iliofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
ischiofemoral ligament

171

out of the 3 ligaments which spiral from the pelvis to the femur, which 2 are anterior?

iliofemoral ligament and pubofemoral ligament are anterior

ischiofemoral ligament is posterior

172

What is the first main branch off of the femoral artery?

profunda femoris
(deep femoral artery)

173

what are the first 2 branches off the profunda femoris?

medial circumflex artery
lateral circumflex artery

174

what artery does the artery to the head of the femur branch off of?

obturator artery

175

what do the medial and lateral circumflex arteries supply?

the hip joint

176

in what ligament does the artery to the head of femur run?

in the ligamentum teres to the head of the femur

177

what are the 3 articulations in the knee joint?

2 x femerotibial
1 x femeropatellar

178

what muscle from the anterior compartment of the thigh stabilises the knee?

quadriceps femoris

179

What are the main 2 extracapsular ligaments of the knee joint?

lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
medial (tibial) collateral ligament

180

What are the 2 intra-articular ligaments of the knee joint?

anterior cruciate (ACL)
posterior cruciate (PCL)

181

what are menisci of the knee joint made of?

crescent shaped fibrocartilage

182

what sign do you get if the anterior cruciate (ACL) of the knee is damaged?

positive lachmans test
anterior sliding of the tibia under the femur

183

what sign do you get if the posterior cruciate (PCL) of the knee is damaged?

posterior drawer sign
posteiror sliding of the tibia under the femur

184

what is the calcaneal tendon more commonly known as?

achilles tendon

185

what is the strongest ligament in the body?

iliofemoral ligament

186

what is the strongest tendon in the body?

calcaneal tendon

187

what 3 muscles tendon make up the calcaneal tendon?

gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris

(from superficial group of posterior leg compartment)

188

what is the normal result of an ankle jerk reflex test?

plantar flexion

189

what spinal nerves roots does an ankle jerk reflex test?

S1, S2 nerve roots

190

what is the most powerful extensor of the hip?

gluteus maximus

191

what gluteal muscle, along with the superficial fascia overlying it, helps to define the gluteal fold?

gluteus maximus

192

Where is the inferior gluteal neurovascular bundle located?

deep to the gluteal maximus

193

where is the superior gluteal neurovascular bundle located?

deep to the gluteus medius

194

what is the distal attachment of the deep muscles of the gluteal region?

greater trochanter of the femur

195

What is the iliotibial tract?

a thickening of the deep fascia of the thigh
(thickening of the fascia lata)

196

Where does the iliotibial tract run?

from the ASIS to the lateral aspect of the laterl tibial condyle- at the Gerdy tubercle

197

what is the function of the iliotibial tract?

supports the knee joint

198

What compartment of the thigh does the sciatic nerve enter?

posterior compartment

199

What type of fibres does the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh contain?

sensory and sympathetic fibres

200

at what level of the spine is a lumbar puncture taken?

L3,4
the plane between the iliac crests

201

at what level does the spinal cord end?

L1/2

202

during a lumbar puncture, samples of CSF are taken from what area surrounding the spinal cord?

subarachnoid space

203

What is the conus medullaris?

the terminal part of the spinal cord

204

What is the order of the muscles in the posterior thigh? (medially to laterally)

semimembranosus
semitendinosus
biceps femoris (long head)
biceps femoris (short head)

205

which is more superficial- semimembranous or semitendinous?

semitendinosus

206

What is the function of the muscles of the posterior thigh?

extend the hip
flex the knee

207

What are the 3 reasons the biceps femoris (short head) is diffferent to the rest of the muscles of the posterior thigh?

1. attaches to the linea aspera of the femur and not the ischial tuberosity
2. it doesn't cross the hip joint so doesn't contribute to extension of the hip joint
3. supplied by common fibular branch instead of tibial branch

208

what increases the depth of the acetabulum?

the acetabular labrum

209

what ligament attaches the femur to the depth of the acetabulum and also contains the artery to the head of the femur?

the ligament of the head of the femur

210

what happens to the artery to the head of the femur in adulthood?

becomes obliterated
(still remains within the ligament of the head of the femur)

211

what happens to the ligament of the head of the femur during hip dislocation?

ligament ruptures

212

what type of joint is the hip joint?

synovial, ball and socket joint

213

which is more stable- hip joint or shoulder joint?

hip joint

214

what is the function of the ligaments around the hip joint?

reinforce stability of the joint

215

Where is the intertrochanteric line of the femur?

a line in between the greater trochanter and the lesser trochanter of the femur
(anterior aspect)

216

where does the fibrous capsure of the hip joint attach to the femur anteriorly?

intertrochanteric line of the femur

217

What branches are given off the medial and lateral circumflex femoral branches and pass deep to the fibrous capsule into the head of the femur?

retinacular arteries

218

What type of hip joint fracture will affect the retinacular arteries?

intercapsular hip fracture
(occurs proximal to the intertrochanteric line)

219

what is the serious problem which can accompany intercapsular hip fracture?

damaged blood supply to the head of th femur causing avascular necrosis

220

what fascia must the small saphenous vein pass through to end up in the popliteal fossa?

popliteal fascia
(deep fascia)

221

from superficial to deep, names the components of the major neurovascular bundle that lies in the popliteal fossa?

tibial nerve
popliteal vein
popliteal artery

222

what nerve gives rise to the medial sural cutaneous nerve?

tibial nerve

223

what nerve gives rise to the lateral sural cutaneous nerve?

fibular nerve

224

what nerve enables communication between the medial and lateral sural cuteneous nerves?

sural communicating branch

225

what 2 nerves combine to form the sural nerve?

medial cutaneous sural nerve and branches from the sural communicating nerve

226

what blood vessel does the sural nerve follow in the superficial fascia of the posterior aspect of the leg?

small saphenous vein

227

what nerve gives branches to both the heads of gastrocnemius which in the popliteal fossa?

tibial nerve

228

what muscle is deep to the lateral head of the gastocnemius?

plantaris muscle

229

what muscle is deep to the plantaris muscle?

popliteus muscle

230

what is the insertion of the plantaris

the calcaneus via the achilles tendon

231

the tibial nerve courses through the posterior compartment of the leg deep to what muscle of the superficial compartment?

soleus

232

what blood vessel does the tibial nerve follow through the posterior compartment of the leg?

posterior tibial artery

233

From anterior to posterior, name the tendons of the muscles of the deep posterior compartment of the leg along with the tibial nerve and the posterior tibial artery?

tendon of Posterior Tibialis
tendon of Flexor Digitorum Longus
Posterior Tibial Artery
Tibial Nerve
tendon of Flexor Hallicus Longus
[Tom, Dick ANd, Harry]

234

what is the insertion of the gastrocnemius

to the calcaneus via the Achilles tendon

235

where does the medial head of the gastrocnemius attach proximally?

medial femoral condyle

236

where does the lateral head of the gastrocnemius attach proximally?

lateral femoral condyle

237

why does the gastrocnemius have a weak knee flexor function in addition to it's powerful ankle plantar-flexor role?

it crosses the knee joint as well as the ankle joint

238

where is the origin of the soleus?

to the neck of the fibula and the soleus line of the tibia
(slopes inferiorly from lateral to medial)

239

where is the insertion of the soleus?

to the calcaneus via the achilles tendon?

240

where does the popliteal artery divide into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries?

divides immediately distal to the popliteal fossa

241

what artery is the fibular artery a branch of?

the posterior tibial artery

242

What does the anterior tibial artery pierce in order to get to the anterior compartment of the leg?

interosseous membrane

243

The posterior tibial artery leaves the posterior compartment by passing anterior or posterior to the medial malleolus?

posterior to the medial malleolus

244

in the foot, the posteiror tibial artery terminates by dividing into what 2 arteries?

medial plantar artery
lateral plantar artery

245

What are the 3 articulations of the knee joint?

2 between femur and tibia
1 between femur and patella

246

What are the main movements of the knee?

flexion
extension
(at 90 degrees flexion also medial and lateral rotation)

247

what muscles are involved in flexion of the knee?

mainly hamstrings and gastrocnemius

248

what muscles are involved in extension of the knee?

mainly quadriceps

249

what muscles are involved in the medial rotation of the knee?

hamstrings and gracilis

250

what muscles are involved in the lateral rotation of the knee?

biceps femoris

251

what are the main ligaments that help with stabilisation of the knee?

iliotibial tract
medial collateral ligament (MCL)
lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

252

what are the medial and lateral menisci of the knee made of?

fibrocartilage

253

what is the function of the medial and lateral menisci?

shock absorbers
assist with stabilisation of curved femoral condyles upon flatter tibial condyles

254

what menisci is compromised in genu varum? and what occurs?

medial menisci
bowed legs

255

what menisci is compromised in genu valgas? and what occurs?

lateral menisci
knock knees

256

what 3 structures are torn in 'unhappy triad' knee injury?

medial collateral ligament
median menisci
anterior cruciate ligament

257

what is the function of the anterior cruciate ligament?

prevents anterior displacement and excessive internal rotation of the tibia on the femur

258

what femoral condyle does the anterior cruciate ligament attach to?

the lateral femoral condyle

259

what is the function of the posterior cruciate ligament?

prevents posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur

260

what femoral condyle does the posterior cruciate ligament attach to?

medial femoral condyle

261

what test assesses the integrity of the ACL?

anterior drawer test

262

what test assesses the intergrity of the PCL?

posterior drawer test

263

what reduces friction on the quadriceps tendon during knee movements?

suprapatellar bursa

264

where does the common fibular nerve bifurcate into the deep fibular nerve and the superficial nerve?

at the fibular neck

265

what muscle compartment of the leg does the deep fibular nerve supply?

anterior compartment

266

what muscle compartment of the leg does the superficial fibular nerve supply?

lateral compartment

267

what muscles are involved in inversion of the foot?

tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior

268

what muscles are involved in the eversion of the foot?

fibularis tertius
fibularis longus
fibularis brevs

269

What separates the anterior and lateral compartment of the leg?

anterior intermuscular septum

270

what nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the arm?

musculocutaneous nerve

271

what nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the arm?

radial nerve

272

what nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the forearm?

mainly median nerve (ulnar supplies flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial part of flexor digitorum profundis)

273

what nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the forearm?

radial nerve

274

what nerve supplies the hand?

ulnar nerve
(except LOAF = median)

275

what nerve is damage in wrist drop? (ie can't extend wrist)

radial nerve

276

what are the 5 spinal nerve roots involves in the brahcial plexus?

anterior rami of
C5
C6
C7
C8
T1

277

what spinal nerve roots form the upper trunk of the brachial plexus?

C5 and C6

278

what spinal nerve roots form the middle trunk of the brachial plexus?

C7

279

what spinal nerve roots form the lower trunk of the brachial plexus?

C8 and T1

280

what divisions do each trunk of the brachial plexus divide into?

anterior division and posterior division

281

what divisions of which trunks form the lateral cord of the brachial plexus?

anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks of the brachial plexus

282

what divisions of which trunks form the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?

posterior divisions of the upper, middle and lower trunks of the brachial plexus

283

what divisions of which trunks form the medial cord of the brachial plexus?

anterior division of lower trunk form of the brachial plexus

284

what cords of the brachial plexus form the muscutaneous nerve?

lateral cord

285

what cords of the brachial plexus form the median nerve?

lateral cord + medial cord

286

what cords of the brachial plexus form the axillary nerve?

posterior cord

287

what cords of the brachial plexus form the radial nerve?

posterior cord

288

what cords of the brachial plexus form the ulnar nerve?

medial cord

289

what are the cords of the brachial plexus named in relation to?

the axillary artery

290

where are the trunks of the brachial plexus found?

neck region

291

what 3 nerves of the brachial plexus form the letter M shape?

musculocutaneous
median
ulnar

292

what spinal nerve roots are tested in the ankle reflex?

S1, S2

293

what spinal nerve roots are tested in the knee reflex?

L3, L4

294

what spinal nerve roots are tested in the biceps brachii tendon reflex?

C5, C6

295

what spinal nerve roots are tested in the triceps brachii tendon reflex?

C7, C8

296

what vein drains the lateral aspect of the forearm/arm?

cephalic vein

297

what vein drains the medial aspect of the forearm/arm?

basilic vein

298

what vein joins the cephalic vein to the basilic vein? (and where does it lie?

median cubital vein
in the cubital fossa

299

what is the name of the 2 veins that accompany the brachial artery?

venae comitantes

300

what are teh 3 types of joint?

fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial

301

what type of joint is the interosseous membrane?

fibrous joint

302

what are the 6 types of synovial joint?

-synovial ball and socket joint
-synovial hinge joint
-synovial pivot joint
-synovial plane joint
-synovial ellipsoid joint
-synovial saddle joint

303

what type of joint is the shoulder joint?

synovial ball and socket joint

304

what type of joint is the elbow joint?

hinge joint

305

what type of joints are the interphalangeal joints of the hands?

hinge joints

306

what type of movement to pivot joints allow?

rotational movement only

307

what type of joints are the proximal radio-ulnar joints?

pivot joints

308

what type of joints are the acromioclavicular joints?

plane joints

309

what type of joints are the wrist joints?

ellipsoid joints

310

what type of joints are the metacarple pharyngeal joints? (MCP)

ellipsoid joints

311

what type of joints are the 1st carple metacarple joints?

saddle joints

312

what is the main part of a synovial joint affected by trauma?

ligaments or capsule

313

what is the main part of a synovial joint affected by osteoarthritis?

hyaline articular cartilage

314

what is the main part of a synovial joint affected by rheumatoid arthritis?

synovial membrane

315

what movement does a synovial plane joint allow?

movement in one plane - gliding

316

where is the adductor canal?

anterior compartment of the thigh
posterior to the sartorius muscle

317

what does the adductor canal contain?

femoral vein
femoral artery
branches of femoral nerve (eg saphenous nerve)

318

what are the 5 joints of the foot?

-subtalar joint
-midtarsal joints
-tarsometatarsal joints
-metatarsophalangeal joints
-interphalangeal joints

319

what bones of the foot are involved in the subtalar joint?

talus and calcaneous

320

how many midtarsal joints are there? and what are they?

2
calcaneocuboid joint
talocalcaneonavicular joint

321

what bones of the foot are involved in the calcaneovuboid (midtarsal) joint?

calcaneous and cuboid

322

what bones of the foot are involved in the talocalcaneonavicular (midtarsal) joint?

talus, calcaneous and navicular

323

what type of joints are the midtarsal joints of the foot?

synovial joints

324

what range of movement do the midtarsal joints of the foot have?

inversion and eversion

325

what bones are involved in the tarsometatarsal joints?

cuneiforms/cuboid with the metatarsals

326

what bones are involved in the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints?

metatarsals and phalanges

327

what type of joints are the metatarsophalangeal joints?

synovial joints

328

what range of movement do the metatartsophalangeal joints have?

flexion
extension
abduction
adduction
circumduction

329

what joints are involved in the interphalangeal joints of the foot?

proximal to middle phalanges
middle to distal phalanges
proximal to distal 1st phalanx

330

what type of joints are the interphalangeal joints of the foot?

synovial hinge joints

331

what range of movement do the interphalngeal joints of the foot have?

flexion and extension

332

what are the 3 arches of the foot?

medial longitudinal arch
lateral longitudinal arch
transverse arch

333

what are the 3 main functions of the arches of the foot?

-shock absorption
-spring function
-weight redistrubution to increased weight-bearing capacity

334

what is the name of the thickened central area of the plantar fascia?

plantar aponeurosis

335

what is the plantar fascia?

the deep fascia of the sole of the foot

336

what supports the arches of the foot?

plantar aponeurosis and plantar ligaments

337

what bones of the foot compose the medial longitudinal arch?

calcaneus, talus, navicular, 3 cuneiforms and metatarsals 1-3

338

what muscles support the medial longitudinal arch of the foot?

flexor hallicus longus
attachments of the tibialis anterior
attachments of the fibularis longus

339

where does the tibialis anterior attach to the foot?

to the junction between the medial cuneiform and the base of 1st metatarsal

340

where does the fibularis longus attach to the foot?

tendon passes across the plantar aspect of the foot from lateral to medial to attach to the junction between the medial cuneiform and the base of the 1st metatarsal

341

what bones of the foot compose the lateral longitudinal arch?

calcaneus, cuboid and metatarsals 4/5

342

what bones of the foot compose the transverse arch?

cuboid, cuneiforms and metatarsals 1-5

343

what muscles support the transverse arch of the foot?

fibularis longus
tibialis posterior

344

what are the muscle compartments of the intrinsic muscles of the foot?

3 layers within the sole +
additional muscles between the metatarsals (interosseous muscles
2 on dorsum

345

what movement do the intrinsic sole muscles of the foot perform?

flexion of the toes

346

what movement do the interosseous muscles of the foot perform?

abduction/adducion of the toes

347

what artery does the dorsalis pedis artery branch off of?

anterior tibial artery

348

where is the pulse of the dorsalis pedis taken?

lateral to the extensor hallicus longus tendon

349

what artery does the arcuate artery branch off of?

dorsalis pedis artery

350

what arteries supply the dorsum of the foot?

dorsalis pedis
+ arcuate artery

351

what artery do both the medial and lateral plantar arteries branch off of?

posterior tibial artery

352

what arteries form the deep plantar arch?

medial and lateral plantar arteries

353

what arteries do the metatarsal arteries arise from?

deep plantar arch and the arcuate artery

354

what arteries do the digital arteries of the foot arise from?

metatarsal arteries

355

how many digital arteries does each toe have?

4

356

where do the great and small saphenous veins arise from?

dorsal venous arch

357

what do the deep veins of the foot drain into?

anterior tibial vein, posterior tibial vein and fibular vein

(all join to form popliteal vein)

358

how many dorsal foot muscles are there?

2

359

what is the function of the dorsal foot muscle?

extension of the toes

360

what is the motor nerve supply to the intrinsic muscles of the sole of the foot?

tibial nerve

361

what is the motor nerve supply to the intrinsic muscles of the dorsum of the foot?

deep fibular nerve

362

what is the sensory supply of the dorsum of the foot?

mainly superficial fibular nerve
deep fibular nerve supplies first interdigital cleft
sural nerve supplies proximal lateral border
saphenous nerve supplies proximal medial border

363

what is the sensory supply of the plantar surface of the foot?

mainly tibial nerve to heel and majority of sole
sural nerve supplies proximal lateral border
saphenous nerve supplies proximal medial border

364

what vessels do the lymphatic vessels of the foot follow?

the great and small saphenous veins

[in limbs, lymphatics follow veins]

365

what forms the anterior wall of the axilla?

pectoralis major

366

what are the main muscles of climbing?

pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi

367

what vein is the axillary vein a continuation of?

brachial vein (a deep vein of the arm)

368

when does the brachial vein become the axillary vein?

at the lower border of the teres major muscle

369

where is the teres major in relation to the axilla?

the teres major contributes to the posterior wall of the axilla

(inferior border of teres major is the inferior extent of the axilla)

370

where can pulsations of the subclavian artery be palpated?

where the artery crosses the first rib

371

when does the subclavian artery become the axillary artery?

at the lateral border of the first rib

372

what muscles do the roots and trunks of the brachial plexus lie between?

between anterior and middle scalene muscles

373

where do the divisions of the brachial plexus lie?

immediately posterior to the subclavian vessels
deep to the clavicle

374

where do the cords of the brachial plexus lie?

around the axillary artery, distal to the first rib

375

what 3 muscles does the musculocutaneous nerve supply?

anterior compartment of the arm:
coracobrachialis
biceps brachii
brachialis

376

which nerves of the brachial plexus pass into the posterior compartment of the arm?

axillary and radial nerve

377

why is the axillary nerve vulnerable to injury in shoulder dislocation or fractured neck of humerus?

it wraps around the posterior aspect of the surgical neck of the humerus

378

why is the radial nerve vulnerable to injury in a mid-shaft humeral fracture?

it wraps around the posterior aspect of the med-shaft of the humerus

379

which is the most medial of the nerves of the brachial plexus?

ulnar nerve

380

where is the 'M-shaped' configuration of the named nerves of the brachial plexus?

within the axilla

381

what is the main muscle of the posterior wall of the axilla?

latissimus dorsi

382

where does the subclavian vein drain into the internal jugular vein in relation to the sternoclavicular joint?

posterior to the sternoclavicular joint

383

where is the subclavian artery in relation to the subclavian vein?

subclavian artery is immediately posterior to the subclavian vein

384

where are the axillary lymph nodes located?

within the fascia of the axilla

385

what cranial nerve supplies the trapezium?

the accessory nerve

386

what type of nerves are the 5 named nerves of the brachial plexus?

somatomotor
somatosensory
sympathetic

387

what is the path of the median nerve?

goes down the medial aspect of the arm and crosses the anterior aspect of the elbow (cubital fossa) and crosses the forearm through the wrist and into the hand through the carpal tunnel

388

what is the path of the ulnar nerve

goes down the medial aspect of the arm and passes posteriorly to the medial epicondyle of the humerus, then into the anterior compartment of the forearm and into the hand

389

what is the path of the axillary nerve?

emerges anteriorly and passes into the posterior compartment of the arm. It wraps around the surgical neck of the humerous and supplies the deltoid muscle

390

what is the path of the radial nerve?

passes into the posterior compartment, passes anteriorly to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and then into the posterior compartment of the forearm

391

which nerve of the brachial plexus carries somatosensory nerve fibres to the medial 1.5 fingers of the hand? (anterior)

ulnar nerve

392

which nerve of the brachial plexus carries somatosensory fibres to the lateral 3.5 fingers of the hand? (anterior)

median nerve

393

which nerve of the brachial plexus carries somatosensory fibres to the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the hand?

radial nerve

394

which nerve of the brachial plexus carries somatosensory fibres to the badge patche
of the lateral arm?

axillary nerve

395

describe the 33 vertebrae organised in the sections of the spine?

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral (fused)
4 coccgeal (fused)

396

why do the cervical vertebrae have a really large central foramen?

large spinal cord
(this thins as it gives out nerves roots)

397

why do the vertebral bodies get larger from the cervical vertebrae to the lumbar vertebrae?

because as you go down, you have to carry more weight

398

where do the ribs attach to the vertebrae of the thoracic spine?

at the costal facets
(2 superior costal facets, 2 inferior costal facets)

399

what are the posterior elements of the vertebrae?

the bony features of the vertebral arch
(ie everything but the vertebral body)

400

compare the thoracic vertebra to the lumbar vertebra in terms of pedicles?

thoracic vertebra- small peedicles
lumbar vertebra- longer, wider pedicles

401

compare the thoracic vertebra to the lumbar vertebra in terms of articular facet joints?

thoracic vertebra- more vertical facet joints
lumbar vertebra- more horizontal facet joints

402

what type of joints are the superior and inferior articular facet joints of the vertebrae?

synovial joints

403

in which joints does osteoarthritis of the spine occur?

in the facet joints

404

what is the main peculiarity of the atlas vertebra?

it has no vertebral body

405

what extra process does the axis have?

dens process
(odontoid peg)

406

what is the function of the dens process of the axis vertebra?

articulates with the atlas and allows rotation of the head and atlas around the dens

407

the atlas vertebra has big wide articular facets, where do these articulate superiorly?

to the occiput of the skull

408

what is the function of the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebrae?

allow transmission of the vertebral artery, vein and nerve fibres

409

compare the vertebral body of the cervical vertebrae to the ones of the thoracic vertebrae?

cervical vertebral body is smaller

410

compare the lamina of the cervical vertebrae to the lamina of the thoracic vertebrae?

cervical lamina is much wider

411

compare the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae to the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra?

cervical transverse process is much shorter

412

what are the movements of the atlanto-occipital joint?

flexion
extension
lateral flexions

413

what are the movements of the atlanto-dens joint?

rotation (with dens acting as pivot)

414

what is the vertebra prominens?

the most prominent vertebra- C7

415

why is there the greatest risk of spinal injury at cervico-thoracic or thoraco-lumbar junctions?

because there is greatest risk of injury at the junctions between mobile and fixed parts

416

what are the 2 main parts of the intervertebral discs?

annular fibrosis
nucleus pulposus

417

what is the annular fibrosis of the intervertebral disc?

ther peripheral tough fibrous structure, arranged in rings

418

what is the nucleus polposus of the intervertebral disc?

the central gelatinous, semi-fluid substance

419

where are the intervertebral discs most likely to rupture? and why?

posteriorly

annulus fibrosus is thinnest posteriorly

420

why in old age does the spine lose height and return to the C shape of the newborn?

intervertebral discs lose fluidity and size causing shrinking

421

what are the 5 main ligaments of the spine?

anterior longitudinal ligament
posterior longitudinal ligament
ligamentum flavum
supraspinous ligament
intraspinous ligament

422

where is the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine?

runs along the anterior surface of the vertebral body and discs

423

where is the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine?

runs along the posterior surface of the vertebral body and discs

424

what does the ligamentum flavum of the spine link?

links vertebral laminae

425

where is the supraspinous ligament of the spine?

runs along the peaks of the spinous processes

426

what does the intraspinous ligament of the spine link?

links the spinous processes of the vertebrae

427

compare the ligamentum flavum, supraspinous ligament and the intraspinous ligament in terms of strength?

ligamentum flavum and supraspinous ligament - tough

intraspinous ligament - relatively weak

428

what are the 3 columns of Denis? (of the spine)

anterior column- anterior 2/3 of the vertebral body

middle column- posterior 1/3 of vertebral body

posterior column- posterior elements

429

what happens to the stability of the spine when 1 column is injured?

spine is stable

430

what happens to the stability of the spine when 2 columns are injured?

spine might be unstable

431

what happens to the stability of the spine when 3 columns are injured?

spine is unstable

432

what are the 3 classifications of muscles of the spine?

-superficial (extrinsics)
-intermediate
-deep (intrinsics)

433

what is the main function of the intermediate muscles of the spine?

respiratory function

434

where is the origin of the intermediate muscles of the spine?

spinous processes

435

where is the insertion of the intermediate muscles of the spine?

ribs

436

what are the 3 intermediate muscles of the spine?

serratus posterior (x2)
serratus superior (x2)
serratus inferior (x2)

437

what are the 4 main superficial (extrinsic) muscles of the spine?

trapezius (x2)
latissimus dorsi (x2)
rhomboid minor and major (x2)
levatus scapularis (x2)

438

what is the function of the superficial (extrinsic) muscles of the spine?

movement of the shoulder and upper limb
(not much to do with spinal movement)

439

where is the origin of the trapezius?

C1-T12 spinous processes

440

where are the insertions of the trapezius?

occiput
spine of the scapula

441

what is the function of the trapezius?

elevates + depresses scapula (ie shrugging shoulders)
retracts scapula

442

where is the origin of the latissimus dorsi?

spinous processes and pelvis (brim of ilium)

443

where is the insertion of the latissimus dorsi?

humerus

444

what is the function of the latissimus dorsi?

adducts humerus
extends humerus
internally rotates humerus

445

what is the innervation of the latissimus dorsi?

C6/7/8

446

where are the rhomboid major and minor and the levatus scapularis in relation to the trapezium?

rhomboid major and minor and the levatus scapularis are just deep to the trapezium

447

where are the origins of the rhomboid major and minor?

minor- spinous processes of C7/T1
major- spinous processes of T2-T5

448

what are the insertions of the rhomboid major and minor?

medial border of the scapula

449

what is the innervation of the rhomboid major and minor?

dorsal scapula nerve (C3/4)

450

what is the function of the rhomboid major and minor?

keeps scapula against thoracic wall
retracts scapula

451

where is the origin of levatus scapularis?

transverse processes of C1

452

where are the insertions of levatus scapularis?

superior angle of scapula

453

what is the innervation of the levatus scapularis?

branches of C4/5

454

what is the function of the levatus scapularis?

elevates the scapula

455

what are the 3 deep muscles of the spine? (intrinsics)

erector spinae muscles:
iliocostalis (x2)
longisimus thoracis (x2)
spinalis thoracis (x2)

456

what happens to the lumbar lordosis in spinal trauma?

lordosis becomes flat
(due to swelling)

457

describe the positions oft eh erector spinae muscles?

all parallel to the spine
iliocostalis (laterally)
longisimus thoracis (in between)
spinalis thoracis (medially)

458

where is the origin of the erector spinae muscles?

occiput of the skull

459

where is the insertion of the erector spinae muscles?

pelvis
(multiple attachments alon thoracic wall)

460

what is the innervation of the erector spinae muscles?

posterior rami of the spinal nerves

461

what is the spinal cord a continuation of?

the medulla oblongata

462

where does the spinal cord exit the skull?

via the foramen magnum

463

where does the spinal cord terminate?

in the cauda equina at L2

464

what area of the body do nerves in the cervical spine govern?

arms

465

what area of the body do nerves in the thoracic spine govern?

middle of the body

466

what area of the body do nerves in the lumbar spine govern?

legs

467

what area of the body do nerves in the sacral spine govern?

posterior aspects of legs
pelvis

468

what are myotomes?

muscles controlled by the motor element of the nerve root from a specific level

469

what are dermatomes?

skin sensation supplied by the sensory element of the nerve root from a specific level

470

what type of mattern makes up the posterior and anterior horns in the spinal cord?

grey matter

471

what lives in the white matter of the spinal cord?

ascending sensory tracts
descending motor tracts

472

what are the 2 types of descending motor tracts?

-crossed pyramidal tract (lateral cerebrospinal tract)
-uncrossed pyramidal tract (anterior cerebrospinal tract)

473

compare the crossed pyramidal tract (lateral cerbrospinal) to the uncrossed pyramidal tract (anterior cerebrospinal)?

crossed- motor neurones crosse at medullary level and descend spine on the contralateral side of the cord

uncrossed- motor neurones descend spine on the ipsilateral side of the cord and crosse at the same level it will exit from

474

what are the 6 types of ascending sensory tracts?

-anterior spinothalmic tract
-anterior spinocerebellar tract
-lateral spinothalmic tract
-posterior spinocerebellar tract
-posterior column of Goli
-posterior column of Burdach

475

what is the pathway of the anterior spinocerebellar tract?

sensory neurones enter and ascend on ipsilateral side of cord
then enter cerebellum

476

what is the pathway of the posterior spinocerebellar tract?

sensory neurones enter and ascend on the ipsilateral side of cord
then enter cerebellum

477

what information do the anterior spinocerebellar tract and the posterior spinocerebellar tract carry?

proprioception

478

what is the pathway of the anterior spinothalmic tract?

sensory neurones enter and ascend the spine on the ipsilateral side for a couple of levels. Then cross and ascend on the contralateral side.
Then enter thalmus

479

what is the pathway of the lateral spinothalmic tract?

sensory neurones enter and ascend the spine on the ipsilateral side for a couple of levels. Then cross and ascend on the contralateral side.
Then enter thalmus

480

what is the pathway of the posterior column of Goli?

sensory neurones enter and ascend the spine on the ipsilateral side of the cord

481

what is the pathway of the posterior column of Burdach?

sensory neurones enter and ascend the spine on the ipsilateral side of the cord

482

what information do the lateral spinothalmic tract and the anterior spinothalmic tract carry?

pain and temperature

483

what information do the posterior columns of Goli and Burdach carry?

fine touch and proprioception

484

what horn of the grey matter of the spinal cord do the descending motor tracts enter?

anterior horn

485

what root are the descending motor tracts transmitted via from the anterior horn to the nerve root?

ventral root

486

what root are the ascending sensory tracts transmitted via from the nerve root to the posterior horn?

dorsal root

487

what horn of the grey matter of the spinal cord do the ascending sensory tracts enter?

posterior horn

488

the dorsal root is for which type of nerve pathway?

sensory nerve function

489

the ventral root is for which type of nerve pathway?

motor nerve function

490

the anterior horn is for which type of nerve function?

motor nerve function

491

the posterior horn is for which type of nerve function?

sensory nerve function

492

what do the ventral and dorsal roots join to become?

nerve root

493

what does the nerve root divide to become?

anterior and posterior rami

494

what do the posterior rami form the nerve supply of?

the intrinsic muscles of the back
the strip of skin sensation in the centre of the back

495

what do the anterior rami form the nerve supply of?

everything in the body/limbs apart from the intrinsic muscles of the back and the strip of skin sensation in the centre of the back

496

where do the spinal nerve roots exit the spinal column? (ie what part of the spine)

the intervertebral foramina

497

what are the 3 main risks to the nerve root leavng the intervertebral foramina

prolapsed disc
facet joint osteophytes
foraminal stenosis

498

what nerve roots is the cauda equina made of?

L2-S5 and coocygeal nerve

499

what do the nerves of the cauda equina supply?

pelvic organs and lower limbs

500

at what level does the spinal cord terminate at?

L2

501

what type of joints are sacroiliac joints?

synovial plane joints

502

what is the treatment of sacroilitis?

non-surgical
NSAIDs, physiotherapy

503

does sacroilitis radiate?

no- localised pain

504

where do the anterior and posterior spinal arteries come from?

descend from the pia mater (innermost layer of the meninges)

reinforced by the cervical, intercostal and lumbar arteries at each level

505

what is Batson's venous plexus?

a network of valveless veins that connect the deep pelvic veins and the thoracic veins to the internal vertebral venous plexus

506

why is the spine a common place for neoplastic metastases?

because of batson's venous plexus linking deep pelvic veins (draining bladder and prostate) and the thoracic veins (draining breast) to the internal vertebral venous plexus

507

what are the intrinsice muscles of the dorsal foot?

extensor hallicus brevis
extensor digitorum brevis

508

what is the sensory nerve supply to the medial leg?

saphenous nerve

509

what is the sensory nerve supply to the medial foot?

saphenous nerve

510

what is the sensory nerve supply to the lateral leg?

superficial fibular nerve

511

what is the sensory nerve supply to the majority dorsal foot?

superficial fibular nerve

512

what is the sensory nerve supply to the sole of the foot and heel?

tibial nerve

513

what is the sensory supply to the section of the dorsal foot between 1st/2nd toes?

deep fibular nerve

514

what is the function of the MTP joints?

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction of the toes

515

what is the function of the subtalar and metatarsal joints?

eversion and inversion of the foot

516

what is the function of the interphalangeal joints?

flexion and extension of the toes

517

where does the hip capsule insert into the femur?

inter-trochanteric line

518

what is the largest sesamoid bone in the body?

patella

519

what mechanism is the patella encapsulated by?

extensor mechanism

520

are people generally genu varum or genu valgum?

genu valgum

521

what is the ankle joint proper?

the articulation between the talus and the tibia

522

what movements are involved in the ankle joint proper?

flexion and extension

523

what joints within the foot is involved in the inversion and eversion of the foot?

midtarsal (calcaneocuboid, talocalcaneonavicular)

524

what is the ring-like cartilaginous structure which is an extension of the acetabulum?

acetabulum labrum

525

what is the function of the acetabulum labrum?

to increase the stability of the femoral head

526

what is a retrograde blood supply?

blood vessels journey past the area they supply then loop back

527

what is the main supplier of blood to the femoral head?

mainly- lateral and medial circumflex arteries

also- intermedullary artery of shaft of femur
(retrograde)

528

what ligament does the antegrade blood supply of the femoral head go through?

ligamentum teres

529

which type of blood supply is more at risk of avascular necrosis after trauma? (antegrade or retrograde)

retrograde

530

what bone in the hand has a retrograde blood supply so has a larger risk of avascular necrosis after trauma?

scaphoid

531

what bone in the foot has a retrograde blood supply so has a larger risk of avascular necrosis after trauma?

talus

532

what are the 2 main hip flexors?

iliacus and the psoas major (iliopsoas together)

533

what are the 2 secondary hip flexors?

rectus femoris
sartorius

534

what are the 3 main hip abductors?

gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fascia late

535

what is the origin of the gluteus minimus/medius?

iliac wing

536

what is the insertion of the gluteus minimus/medius

greater trochanter of femur

537

what is the origin of the tensor fascia lata?

iliac crest

538

what is the insertion of the tensor fascia lata?

lateral tibial via the iliotibial tract

539

what are the muscles which stabilise you when you stand onone leg?

hip abductors

540

what is the main function of the gluteus maximus?

hip extensor

541

what is the origin of the gluteus maximus?

posterior aspect of the ilium/sacrum

542

what is the insertion of the gluteus maximus?

iliotibial tract

543

what is the origin of both short head and long head of the biceps femoris?

long head- ischial tuberosity
short head- linea aspera

544

what is the insertion of the short and long head of the biceps femoris?

fibula head

545

what is the origin of the semimembranosus?

ischial tuberosity

546

what is the insertion of the semimembranosus?

posterior tibia

547

what is the origin of the semitendinosus?

ischial tuberosity

548

what is the insertion of the semitendinosus?

medial tibia

549

what is the likely diagnosis of a middle-aged/old patient presenting with lateral hip pain and no tenderness of the groin?

trochanteric bursitis

550

why is there always tenderness of the groin in a true inter-articular injury of the hip?

because the groin is right over the joint

551

what are the 3 compartments of the knee?

lateral compartment
medial compartment
patellofemoral compartment

552

what is the main function of the medial collateral ligaments of the knee?

resist valgus stresses

553

what is the main function of the lateral collateral ligaments of the knee?

resist varum stresses

554

what are the origins of the collateral ligaments of the knee?

lateral and medial condyles of the femur

555

what direction does the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee go in?

inferomedially

556

what direction does the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee go in?

inferolaterally

557

what are the 2 main types of acute meniscal tears?

bucket handle tear
radial tear

558

what are the 5 parts of the extensor mechanism?

quadriceps muscle
quadriceps tendon
patella
patella tendon
tibial tuberosity

559

what nerve should you worry about in a fracture of the proximal fibula?

common fibular nerve

560

what is the origin of the plantaris?

lateral femoral condyle

561

where is the origin of the tibialis anterior?

lateral surface of the proximal tibia

562

where is the insertion of the tibialis anterior?

medial cuneiform /base of the 1st metatarsal

563

what is the medial ankle ligament?

deltoid ligament

564

what is the lateral ankle ligament?

lateral ligament complex

565

what forces does the deltoid ligament of the ankle resist?

eversion /valgising forces of the ankle

566

what forces does the lateral ligament complex of the ankle resist?

inversion/ varising forces of the ankle

567

what is the origin of the plantar fascia?

tuberosity of calcaneus

568

what is the insertion of the plantar fascia?

heads of the metatarsals

569

what are the 3 muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm?

biceps brachii
coracobrachialis
brachialis

570

which is the most anterior muscle in the anterior compartment of the arm?

biceps brachii

571

where do the short head and the long head of the biceps brachii attach?

short head- coracoid process of the scapula
long head- supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

572

what are the 3 muscles that attach to the coracoid process of the scapula?

-pectoralis minor
-coracobrachialis
-short head of biceps brachii

573

what groove does the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii pass through?

intertubecular groove of the humeus

574

what are the 2 distal attachments of the biceps brachii?

-bicipital tuberosity of the radius via the biceps tendon

-medial side of proximal forearm via the bicipital aponeurosis

575

describe the location of the corachobrachialis relative to the biceps brachii and brachialis?

-deep to the biceps brachii
-medial to the brachialis

576

what separates the coracobrachialis from the triceps?

medial intermuscular septae

577

where is the distal attachment of the coracobrachialis?

humerus

578

where is the distal attachment of the brachialis?

coranoid process of ulna

579

where is the proximal attachment of the brachialis?

humerus

580

what separates brachialis fromt he triceps?

lateral intermuscular septae

581

what is the most powerful supinator of the forearm?

biceps brachii

582

why can biceps brachii supinate the forearm?

because it spans the radioulnar joint

583

what are the functions of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm?

-flexion, abduction + adduction of wrist
-flexion of fingers + thumb
-pronation of forearm

584

what is the arrangement of the muscles of the anterior forearm?

layer 1, layer 2 and layer 3
suprficial to deep

585

what are the 4 muscles of layer 1 of the anterior compartment of the forearm?

-pronator teres
-palmaris longus
-flexor carpi radialis
-flexor carpi ulnaris

586

where do the muscles of layer 1 of the anterior compartment of the forearm attach proximally?

to the medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon

587

where does the palmaris longus (layer 1) attach distally?

palmar aponeurosis

588

where does the flexor carpi radialis attach distally?

to the metacarpals on the radial side (lateral)

589

where does the flexor carpi ulnaris attach distally?

to the metacarpals on the ulnar side (medial)

590

what muscles makes up layer 2 of the anterior forearm?

flexor digitorum superficialis

591

how many muscle bellies/tendons are there in the flexor digitorum superficialis and what are these for?

4 muscle bellies/tendons for the medial four digits

592

what are the 3 muscles of layer 3 of the anterior forearm?

-flexor digitorum profundus
-flexor pollicis longus
-pronator quadratus

593

how many muscle bellies/tendons are there in the flexor digitorum profunda and what are these for?

4 muscle bellies/tendons for the medial four digits

594

what are the long tendons of the muscles of the anterior compartment held in place by as they pass into the wrist and hand?

palmar carpal ligament
flexor retinaculum

595

what is golfers elbow?

medial epicondylitis
(tendonitis of the common flexor tendon)

596

what makes the superior boundary of the cubital fossa?

transverse line between the epicondyles of the humerus

597

what makes the inferomedial boundary of the cubital fossa?

pronator teres

598

what makes the inferolateral boundary of the cubital fossa?

brachioradialis

599

what are the 3 veins and the 2 tendons which form the superficial contents of the cubital fossa?

median cubital vein
cephalic vein
basilic vein
biceps tendon
bicipital aponeurosis

600

what are the 2 nerves and the artery which form the deep contents of the cubital fossa?

median nerve (medially)
radial nerve (laterally)
brachial artery

601

where does the brachial artery bifurcate into the radial and ulnar arteries?

at the apex of the cubital fossa triangle

602

when does the radial nerve divide into its superficial and deep branches?

deep to the brachialis
just anterior to the lateral epicondyle

603

what muscle does the radial nerve pierce in order to enter the posterior compartment of the forearm?

supinator muscle

604

does the ulnar nerve cross the anterior or posterior surface of the medial epicondyle of the humerus?

posterior surface

605

which nerve is involved in the 'funny bone' site?

ulnar nerve

606

what muscle does the ulnar nerve pass through to reach the anterior compartment of the forearm? (and what tunnel does it do this in?)

through flexor carpi ulnaris (in the cibutal tunnel)

607

what nerve supplying the hand is spared in carpal tunnel syndrome and why?

palmar cutenous branch of the median nerve

because it passes into the hand superficially to the flexor retinaculum

608

what is the function of the brachialis?

flexion of the elbow

609

what is the function of the coracobrachialis?

flexion of the shoulder

610

what is the function of the biceps brachii?

(flexion of the shoulder)
flexion of the elbow
supination of the forearm

611

what are the 3 parts of the deltoid muscle?

-posterior (spinal) part
-middle (acromion) part
-anterior (clavicular) part

612

what is the function of the posterior (spinal) part of the deltoid muscle?

extension of the shoulder

613

what is the function of the middle (acromial) part of the deltoid muscle?

abduction of the shoulder
(supraspinatus initiates and deltoid takes over at about 30 degrees)

614

what is the function of the anterior (clavicular) part of the deltoid muscle?

flexion at the shoulder

615

what are the 3 parts of the trapezius?

ascending, middle and descending parts

616

what is the function of the ascending part of the trapezius?

scapular depression

617

what is the function of the middle part of the trapezius?

retraction of the scapulae

618

what is the function of the descending part of the trapezius?

scapular elevation

619

what do the ascending and descending trapezius parts contract together to produce?

superior rotation of glenoid fossa

620

what is the function of the levator scapulae?

elevation of scapula and inferior rotation of glenoid fossa

621

what is the function of the rhomboid major?

retraction of scapula and inferior rotation of glenoid fossa

622

what is the function of rhomboid minor?

retraction of scapula and inferior rotation of glenoid fossa

623

what are the 4 rotator cuff muscles?

-supraspinatus
-infraspinatus
-teres minor
-subscapularis

624

what is the function of supraspinatus?

first 15 degrees of abduction

625

what is the function of infraspinatus?

stabilises head of humerus in glenoid
external rotation of shoulder

626

what is the function of teres minor?

stabilises head of humerus in glenoid
external rotation of shoulder

627

what is the function of subscapularis?

stabilises head of humerus in glenoid
internal rotation of shoulder

628

what is the function of tere major?

adduction and medial rotation of the shoulder

629

what is the distal attachment of the supraspinatus?

greater tubercle of the humerus

630

what is the distal attachment of the infraspinatus?

greater tubercle of the humerus

631

what is the distal attachment of the subscapularis?

lesser tubercle of the humerus

632

what is the distal attachment of the teres minor?

greater tubercle of the humerus

633

what nerves innervate the rotator cuff muscles?

brachial plexus

634

what nerve supplies the deltoid muscle?

axillary nerve

635

what nerve supplies the teres minor?

axillary nerve

636

where does the deltoid attach proximally?

lateral 1/3 of the calvicle and the inferior aspect of the scapular spine and acromion

637

where does the deltoid attach distally?

to the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

638

where does the subacromion bursa lie?

between supraspinatus tendon and acromion process of scapula

639

subacromial bursitis may give rise to shoulder pain, especially on what movement?

abduction
(because inflamed bursa will irritate the supraspinatus tendon)

640

what spinal nerves supply sensory innervation to the posterior aspect of the arm?

medially: anterior rami of spinal nerves C8, T1 + T2
laterally: anterior rami of spinal nerves C5 + C6 (via axillary nerve)

641

what is the only muscle of the posterior compartment of the arm?

triceps brachii

642

what are the proximal attachments of the triceps brachi?

long head- infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

lateral head- superior to the radial groove of the humerus

medial head- inferior to the radial groove of the humerus

643

where is the distal attachment of the triceps brachii?

olecranon process of ulna (via the triceps tendon)

644

what is the action of the triceps brachii?

extension of the forearm
weak extension of the arm

645

what nerve supplies the triceps brachii?

radial nerve

646

define the borders of the quadrangular space where the axillary nerve is found?

superiorly- teres minor
inferiorly- teres major
laterally- humerus
medially- long head of triceps

647

what is the name of the area of skin on the lateral aspect of the arm that is supplied by the axillary nerve?

badge patch

648

when patients have sustained an inferior dislocation of the shoulder, why is the badge patch tested?

to test for function of the axillary nerve

649

what nerve does abduction of the shoulder beyond 15 degrees test?

axillary nerve

650

what spinal nerves make up the axillay nerve?

C5 and C6

651

what spinal nerves make up the radial nerve?

C5- T1

652

what groove in the humerus is the radial nerve found in?

radial groove

653

what nerve is particularly vulnerable to a spiral mid-shaft fracture of the humerus?

radial nerve

654

what are the 4 main functions of groups of muscles in the posterior compartment of the wrist?

1- extension, abduction and adduction of wrist
2- extension of fingers
3- extension and abduction of thumb
4- supination of the forearm

655

what 5 muscles of the posterior compartment of the wrist are known as the 'superficial layer'?

brachioradialis
extensor carpi ulnaris
extensor carpi radialis
extensor digitorum
extensor digiti minim

656

what 5 muscles of the posterior compartment are known as the 'deep layer'?

supinator
extensor pollicis longus
extensor pollicis brevis
abductor pollicis longus
extensor indicis

657

where do the muscles of the superficial layer of the posterior arm attach proximally?

to lateral epicondyle of humerus via the common extensor tendon

658

with the exception of the muscle group which supinate the forearm, where are the muscle bellies/tendons of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm?

muscle bellies within the posterior compartment
tendons pass to the wrist and fingers

659

what holds the tendons of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the wrist in place as they cross the wrist?

extensor retinaculum

660

what is the main action of brachioradialis? (a muscle of the posterior compartment of the forearm)

flexion of the semi-
pronated forearm

661

what happens to the radial nerve as it passes through the supinator muscle back into the posterior compartment of the forearm?

becomes renamed the posterior interosseous nrve

662

where is the medial head of the tricpes brachii in relation to the long head?

medial head is more deep and inferior to long head

663

what artery is found in the radial groove?

profunda brachii artery

664

what is tennis elbow?

lateral epicondylitis (tendonitis of the common extensor tendon)

665

what is the function of the extensor carpi radialis?

extends wrist on radial side

666

what is the function of the extensor carpi ulnaris?

extends wrist on ulnar side

667

what is the function of the extensor digitorum?

extends fingers

668

what is the funcion of the extensor pollicis longus?

extends thumb

669

what is the function of the abductor pollicis longus?

abducts thumb

670

what is the function of the extensor pollicis brevis?

extends thumb

671

what is the function of the extensor indicis?

extends index finger

672

what are the 2 parts of the elbow joint?

humero-ulnar joint
radiocapitellar joint

673

what is the function of the humero-ulnar joint?

flexion/extension

674

what is the function of the radio-capitellar joint?

supination/pronation

675

what muscles supinate the forearm?

biceps brachi and supinator muscles

676

what muscles pronate the forearm?

pronator teres
pronator quadratus

677

what 9 tendons pass through the carpal tunnel?

4 flexor digitorum profundus
4 flexor digitorum superficialis
flexor pollicis longus

678

what is the shoulder joint proper?

glenohumeral joint

679

what part of the ulna articulates with the humerus?

olecranon process

680

what is the origin of the supraspinatus?

supraspinous fossa

681

what is the innervation of the supraspinatus?

suprascapular nerve

682

what is the origin of the infraspinatus?

the infraspinous fossa

683

what is the innervation of the infraspinatus?

suprascapular nerve

684

what is the origin of the teres minor?

dorsal aspect of the lateral border of the scapula

685

what is the origin of the subscapularis?

subscapular fossa
(anterior wall of the scapula)

686

what is the insertion of the deltoid?

deltoid tuberosity on lateral aspect of the humerus

687

what bone feature of the humerus articulates with the ulna?

trochlea

688

what bony feature of the humerus articulates with the radial head?

capitulum

689

why are supracondylar humeral fractures common inchildren?

because the supracondylar region of bone is very thin

690

what 2 structures are susceptible to damage during supracondylar humeral fractures?

brachial artery
median nerve

691

compare skin that is innervated to skin that is denervated when running under water for a long time?

innervated skin wrinkles
denervated skin doesn't wrinkle

692

what are the 3 main ligaments in the elbow?

the medial collateral ligament
the lateral collateral ligament
the annular ligament

693

which ligament is much thinner- the medial or lateral collateral ligament of the elbow?

lateral collateral ligament is much thinner than the medial collateral ligament

694

what is the function of the annular ligament of the elbow?

keeps the radial head in place

695

what is the site of insertion for all the extensor muscles of the forearm? (posterior compartment)

common extensor origin on the lateral epiconyle of the humerus

696

what is the site of insertion for all the flexor muscles of the forearm? (anterior compartment)

common flexor origin on the medial epicondyle of the humerus

697

during supination/pronation of the forearm, which is the bone that actually does the movement?

radius
ulna remains in the same place

698

what is the fracture which can present as a dinner fork deformity?

distal radius fracture

699

what are the 2 groups of muscles of the hand?

extrinsic
intrinsic

700

compare the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the hand in terms of where the muscle bellies are?

extrinsic- located in the anterior/posterior compartment of the forearm
intrinsic- located in the hand itself

701

what is the thenar eminence?

the muscular part at the base of the thumb

702

what are the 3 thenar muscles?

opponens pollicis
flexor pollicis brevis
abductor pollicis brevis

703

what is the function of the thenar muscles?

move the thub

704

what is the innervation of the thenar muscles?

median nerve

705

are the thenar muscles intrinsic or extrinsic muscles of the hand?

intrinsic

706

what is the function of the hypothenar muscles?

move the little finger

707

what are the 2 hypothenar muscles?

flexor digiti minimi brevis
abductor digiti minimi

708

what is the innervation of the hypothenar muscles?

ulnar nerve

709

are the hypothenar muscles part of the intrinsic of extrinsic muscles of the hand?

intrinsic

710

what is the function of the lumbricals muscles?

flex at the MCP joints
extend at the IP joints

711

compare the dorsal interossei and palmar interossei muscles in terms of which abduct and which adduct the fingers?

dorsal interossei abduct the fingers

palmar interossei adduct the fingers

712

are the interossei muscles intrinsic or extrinsic muscles of the hand?

intrinsic muscles

713

how many lumbrical muscles of the hands are there?

4

714

what is the innervation of the lumbrical muscles of the hand?

lateral 2 = median nerve
medial 2 = ulnar nerve

715

are the lumbrical muscles intrinsic or extrinsic muscles of the hand?

intrinsic muscles

716

what is the function of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscles of the hand?

flex fingers at PIP joints

717

what nerve innervates the flexor digitorum superficialis muscles of the hand?

median nerve

718

are the flexor digitorum superficialis muscles intrinsic or extrinsic muscles of the hand?

extrinsic

719

what is the function of the flexor digitorum profundus muscles of the hand?

flex fingers at the DIP joints

720

what nerve innervates the flexor digitorum profundus muscles of the hand?

lateral 2 = median nerve
medial 2 = ulnar nerve

721

what are the functions of the annular and cruciate pulleys in the hands?

keep the flexor tendons down to the bones

722

what are the 3 peripheral nerves of the hand?

median
ulnar radial

723

compare the ulnar and median nerve muscular supply of the hand?

median nerve - LOAF
(lateral lumbrical + opponens pollicis + abductor pollicis brevis + flexor pollicis brevis)

ulnar nerve - all other intrinsic hand muscles

724

compare cutaneous sensation nerve supply of the hand by the median, ulnar and radial nerves?

median nerve- radial 3.5 fingers
ulnar nerve- ulnar 1.5 fingers
radial enerve- variable portion of dorsum, particuarly 1st webspace dorsum

725

how do you test the median nerve muscular supply within the hand?

test abductor pollicis brevis

726

how do you test the median nerve cutaneous sensation within the hand?

touch tip of index finger and thenar eminsnce

727

how do you test the ulnar nerve muscular supply within the hand?

test abductor indicis and adductor digiti minimi

728

how do you test the ulnar nerve cutaneous sensation within the hand?

touch dorsum and volar aspects of little finger

729

how do you test the radial cutaneous sensation within the hand?

touch dorsum of 1st webspace

730

is the brachial plexus made of anterior or posterior rami?

anterior rami

731

where does the ulnar nerve pass in relation to the medial epicondyle?

posterior to the medial epicondyle

732

the superficial palmar arch is immediately deep to what tendon?

palmar aponeurosis

733

the deep palmar arch runs across the anterior aspects of what?

the bases of the metacarpals

734

each finger has 4 neurovascular bundles supplying it, what are these?

medial palmar
lateral palmar
medial dorsal
lateral dorsal

735

what is ring block technique?

depositing local anaesthetic in a ring around the base of the finger to anaesthetise all 4 proper digital nerves

736

what fascia is affected by dupuytren's contractures?

palmar fascia

737

what structure forms a secure tunnel through which the tendons of the FDS/FDP/FPL and their synovial sheaths can travel distally?

fibrous digital sheaths

738

what does tenderness of the floor of the anatomical snuff box following trauma suggest?

scaphoid fracture

739

which nerve supplies the lateral dorsum of the hand and proximal index and middle fingers?

radial nerve

740

which nerve supplies the dorsal skin over the distal phalanges of the thumb, index finger, middle finger and lateral side of ring finger?

median nerve

741

which nerve suplies the medial part of the dorsum of the hand and the dorsum of the little finger and the medial hald of the ring finger?

ulnar nerve

742

what joints do the lumbricals of the hand span?

anterior MCPJs
posterior PIPs
of digits 2-5