Injury + Surgery Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal > Injury + Surgery > Flashcards

Flashcards in Injury + Surgery Deck (489)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is the pathogenesis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head?

-increased venous pressure in femoral head
-pressure cuts off arterial supply

2

what are the 3 zones of cartilage?

superficial zone
transitional zone
deep zone

3

what is the orientation of the cartilage fibres in the superficial zone?

parallel to the surface

4

what is the orientation of the cartilage fibres in the transitional zone?

randomly orientated

5

what is the orientation of the cartilage fibres in the

perpendicular to the surface

6

what section of the cartilage must the damage reach for healing to occur?

the tidemark

7

what cartilage type is the hyaline cartilage replaced with during healing?

fibrocartilage

8

what is protrusio?

when the femur starts to protrude into the acetabulum itself

9

which is protrusio more common in- RA or OA?

rheumatoid arthritis

10

what is an osteotomy?

a controlled cut of the bone in order to realign or redistribute weight

11

what is a CAM bony feature of the hip joint? (abnormal)

a bigger bump of the femoral neck (no normal taper)

12

what is a pincer bony feature of the hip joint? (abnormal)

extra bone on the lateral side of the acetabulum

13

what is the surgical treatment of an asymptomatic pincer or CAM feature on a hip joint?

nothing

14

what is the surgical treatment of a symptomatic pincer or CAM feature on a hip joint?

shaving of the area of bone to reshape

15

what is the surgical management of early avascular necrosis?

decompression
(drill a hole to let pressure escape)

16

what are the 3 main non-surgical managements of an arthritic hip joint?

weight loss
analgesia
physiotherapy

17

when is proprioception more of an issue- hip or knee replacements?

knee replacements

18

compare hip arthritis pain to trochanteric bursitis pain?

hip arthritis pain: generalised achy pain, tender over groin

trochanteric bursitis: localised lateral hip pain, not tender over groin

19

why can only the peripheral 1/3 of a meniscus be expected to heal?

only the peripheral 1/3 has a blood supply
the rest of the meniscus is avascula

20

compare the medial and lateral menisci in terms of mobility?

medial menisci- fixed
lateral menisci- more mobile

21

which compartment does the knee mainly pivot on during flexion and extension?

medial compartment

22

due to the knee mainly pivoting on the medial compartment during flexion and extension, what way does the tibia slightly rotate during each movement?

flexion- slight internal rotation
extension- slight external rotation

23

why is the medial meniscus under greater stress than the lateral menisci?

because pivoting of the tibia mainly occurs on the medial compartment

24

which menisci is more likely to tear- medial or lateral?

medial menisci

25

what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of valgus stress?

medial collateral ligament

26

what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of varus stress?

lateral collateral ligament

27

what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of anterior subluxation of the tibia?

anterior cruciate ligament

28

what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of posterior subluxation of the tibia? (ie anterior subluxation of the femur)

posterior cruciate ligament

29

what ligament is the main resistor of excessive internal rotation of the tibia?

anterior cruciate ligament

30

what ligament is the main resistor of hyperextension of the knee?

posterior cruciate ligament