Flashcards in Injury + Surgery Deck (489)
what is the pathogenesis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head?
-increased venous pressure in femoral head
-pressure cuts off arterial supply
what are the 3 zones of cartilage?
what is the orientation of the cartilage fibres in the superficial zone?
parallel to the surface
what is the orientation of the cartilage fibres in the transitional zone?
what is the orientation of the cartilage fibres in the
perpendicular to the surface
what section of the cartilage must the damage reach for healing to occur?
what cartilage type is the hyaline cartilage replaced with during healing?
what is protrusio?
when the femur starts to protrude into the acetabulum itself
which is protrusio more common in- RA or OA?
what is an osteotomy?
a controlled cut of the bone in order to realign or redistribute weight
what is a CAM bony feature of the hip joint? (abnormal)
a bigger bump of the femoral neck (no normal taper)
what is a pincer bony feature of the hip joint? (abnormal)
extra bone on the lateral side of the acetabulum
what is the surgical treatment of an asymptomatic pincer or CAM feature on a hip joint?
what is the surgical treatment of a symptomatic pincer or CAM feature on a hip joint?
shaving of the area of bone to reshape
what is the surgical management of early avascular necrosis?
(drill a hole to let pressure escape)
what are the 3 main non-surgical managements of an arthritic hip joint?
when is proprioception more of an issue- hip or knee replacements?
compare hip arthritis pain to trochanteric bursitis pain?
hip arthritis pain: generalised achy pain, tender over groin
trochanteric bursitis: localised lateral hip pain, not tender over groin
why can only the peripheral 1/3 of a meniscus be expected to heal?
only the peripheral 1/3 has a blood supply
the rest of the meniscus is avascula
compare the medial and lateral menisci in terms of mobility?
medial menisci- fixed
lateral menisci- more mobile
which compartment does the knee mainly pivot on during flexion and extension?
due to the knee mainly pivoting on the medial compartment during flexion and extension, what way does the tibia slightly rotate during each movement?
flexion- slight internal rotation
extension- slight external rotation
why is the medial meniscus under greater stress than the lateral menisci?
because pivoting of the tibia mainly occurs on the medial compartment
which menisci is more likely to tear- medial or lateral?
what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of valgus stress?
medial collateral ligament
what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of varus stress?
lateral collateral ligament
what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of anterior subluxation of the tibia?
anterior cruciate ligament
what ligament in the knee is the main resistor of posterior subluxation of the tibia? (ie anterior subluxation of the femur)
posterior cruciate ligament
what ligament is the main resistor of excessive internal rotation of the tibia?
anterior cruciate ligament