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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (53):
1

What are the 6 regions of the lower leg?

Gluteal, femoral, knee, leg, ankle and foot region

2

What are the functions of the lower limb?

Supports body weight, locomotion, maintain balance

3

What are the superficial muscles in the gluteal region?

Gluteus maximus, medius, minimus and tensor fascia latae

4

What are the functions of the superficial muscles of the gluteal region?

Extensors, abductors and medial rotators of thigh

5

What nerves innervate superficial gluteal muscles?

Gluteal nerves

6

What is Trendelenburg's Gait?

It is an abnormal gait caused by weakness of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. A lesion of the superior gluteal nerve causes weakness in abduction the thigh at the hip.

7

What are the deep muscles of the gluteal region?

Piriformis, obturator internus, gemelli, quadratus femoris

8

What are the functions of the deep gluteal muscles?

Lateral rotators of thigh and hip stabilisers

9

What is the nerve supply to the deep gluteal muscles?

Nerves from sacral plexus

10

Where do nerves enter/exit the pelvis & perineum?

Greater and lesser sciatic foramen

11

What is the lesser sciatic foramen formed by?

The sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments

12

What is the gluteal region divided into with regards to injections?

Quadrants

13

Where does the sciatic nerve originate?

L4-S3

14

What does the sciatic nerve supply?

Posterior thigh, all leg and foot muscles & most of skin

15

Where does the pudendal nerve originate from?

S2-S4

16

What does the pudendal nerve supply?

Principle nerve to perineum

17

Where does the posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh originate from?

S1-S3

18

What does the posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh supply?

Skin over posterior thigh, popliteal fossa, lateral perineum and upper medial thigh

19

Where does the sciatic nerve usually exit?

Inferior to piriformis, and most lateral exiting the greater sciatic foramen

20

What is the sciatic nerves artery?

Artery to the sciatic nerve

21

What does the sciatic nerve supply in the gluteal region?

Nothing

22

Where does the sciatic nerve separate, and into what branches?

Distal thigh into tibial nerve and common fibular

23

Describe the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

Superior-inguinal ligament. Medially- lateral border of adductor longus. Laterally- medial border of sartorius. Floor- iliopsoas and pectineus. Roof- fascia lata

24

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

Femoral nerve and its (terminal) branches.
Femoral sheath and its contents:
-Femoral artery and branches.
-Femoral vein and its proximal tributaries (the great saphenous and deep femoral veins).
-Deep inguinal lymph nodes(one in femoral sheath) and associated lymphatic vessels.

25

What is located within parts of the body that separates up different structures?

Fascia and muscle compartments

26

What separates different compartments?

Deep fascia and intermuscular septum

27

What is compartment syndrome?

Increased pressure caused by swelling of tissue or increase in fluid (bleeding) in a compartment. Affects functions of muscles or nerves in compartment. Acute or chronic. Fasciotomy to relieve pressure in emergency

28

What are the 3 compartments within the thigh?

Anterior, medial & posterior

29

What are the 3 compartments within the leg?

Anterior, posterior and lateral

30

What is contained within the anterior compartment of thigh?

Flexors of thigh (pectineus, iliopsoas, sartorius), extensors of leg (quadriceps femoris), all femoral nerves (L2,3,4)-psoas major supplied by L1-3

31

What is contained within the medial compartment of thigh?

Adductors of thigh-adductor longus, brevis, magnus, gracilis and obturator externus. All supplied by obturator nerve (L2-4), except hamstring of adductor magnus (tibial nerve)

32

What is contained within the posterior compartment of thigh?

Extensors of thigh and flexors of leg-semitendinosus, semimembranosus & biceps femoris. All supplied by tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5,S1,S2), except short head biceps femoris (common fibular division of sciatic)

33

What is contained within the anterior compartment of leg?

Dorsiflexors of ankle & extensors of toes-tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, fibularis tertius. All supplied by deep fibular nerve (L4,5)

34

What is contained within the lateral compartment of leg?

Evert foot & weakly plantarflex ankle-fibularis longus and brevis. All supplied by superficial fibular nerve (L5,S1,S2)

35

What is contained within the posterior compartment of leg?

Superficial group- plantarflexors of ankle: gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris. Deep- flexors of toes & plantarflexors of ankle- popliteus, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior. All tibial nerve

36

What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

Superolaterally- biceps femoris. Superomedially-semimembranosus. Inferiorly-gastrocnemius. Roof-popliteal fascia

37

What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?

Fat, terminal small saphenous vein, popliteal vessels, tibial and common fibular nerves

38

Where do the superficial lymphatics of the lower limb follow and drain?

Follow saphenous veins, drain to superficial inguinal lymph nodes then external iliac lymph nodes

39

Where do the deep lymphatics of the lower limb follow and drain?

Follow deep veins, some to popliteal lymph nodes first if small saphenous vein. Drain to deep inguinal lymph nodes then external iliac lymph nodes

40

What type of joint is the hip joint with regards to articulation?

Ball (head of femur) and socket (acetabulum of hip)

41

What type of joint with regards to movement is the hip joint?

Multiaxial-flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial-lateral rotation, circumduction

42

What type of joint is the hip joint with regards to structure?

Synovial-within strong joint capsules, has external fibrous layer and internal membranous layer

43

What forms ligaments at the hip joint?

Thick part of fibrous layer of joint capsule

44

In what shape do the ligaments form at the hip joint?

Spiral from pelvis to head femur

45

What ligaments are formed at the hip joint?

Iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral

46

What is the blood supply to the hip joint?

Medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries-usually from deep femoral artery. Give off retinacular arteries. Artery to head of femur-branch of obturator

47

What type of joint with regards to articulation is the knee joint, and what articulations exist?

Hinge joint- 2x femerotibial, 1x femeropatellar

48

What type of joint with regards to structure is the knee joint?

Synovial- has external fibrous layer with internal membranous layer- extensions occur as bursea

49

What ligaments are present outside the capsule at the knee joint?

Patellar ligament, lateral (fibular) collateral ligament, medial (tibial) collateral ligament

50

What ligaments are present within the knee joint (intra-articular)?

Anterior cruciate (ACL), posterior cruciate (PCL)

51

What menisci shaped ligaments are present at the knee joint?

Medial and lateral, made of fibrocartilage

52

Describe the calcaneal tendon

Achilles, thickest and strongest in body. 15cm long. Tendons of gastrocnemius and soleus together. Attaches to calcaneal tuberosity of calcaneus.

53

What reflex is present in the calcaneal tendon?

Ankle jerk reflex, results in plantarflexion