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Flashcards in Clinical Anatomy Deck (38):
1

What are the characteristics of vertebrae in the thoracic region?

Increase in size T1-12. Small pedicles, long spinous processes. More vertical facet joints (60'). ROM limited; ribs/vertebrae connections and long spinous processes

2

What are the characteristics of vertebrae in the lumbar region?

Increases in size L1-5. Longer, wider pedicles. Spinous processes are horizontal. More horizontal facet joints (90')

3

Describe the purpose and structure of facet joints

Stabilise spinal column whilst allowing movement. Superior & inferior facet articulations, synovial joints, hyaline cartilage

4

Describe the purpose and structure of SIJ

Shock absorption whilst allowing movement. Designed for stability. Weight bearing synovial plane joint with irregular elevations and depressions that produce interlocking

5

What vertebrae make up the cervical region?

C1+2

6

What vertebrae make up the lower cervical region?

C3-7

7

What does C1 articulate with superiorly?

Occiput of the skull

8

What is the other name of the odontoid process on C2?

Dens process

9

Describe the purpose and structure of vertebrae in the lower cervical region

Large foramen to admit wide spinal cord. Transervse foramen: vertebral artery, vein, nerve fibre. Small body with wide lamina, much shorter transverse processes

10

What is the vertebra prominens?

C7- First palpable

11

What is the most palpable vertebrae?

T1

12

Where in the spine has the greatest risk of injury?

Cervico-thoracic and thoraco-lumbar junctions-at junctions of fixed and mobile segments

13

What is the peripheral structure of intervertebral discs?

Annulus fibrosis

14

What is the central structure of intervertebral discs?

Nucleus pulposus

15

What are the characteristics of annulus fibrosis?

Thin posteriorly, can rupture

16

What are the characteristics of nucleus pulposus?

Gelatinous, semi-fluid

17

What is the purpose of ligaments of the spine?

Add to stability of spinal column- as important as bony structures

18

What are the spinal ligaments?

Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament (runs length of column), ligamentum flavum (link vertebral laminae) , supraspinous ligament, intraspinous

19

Describe the strength of ligamentum flavum, supraspinous and intraspinous ligaments

Tough and elastic, tough, relatively weak

20

What are the intermediate spinal muscles, origin, insertion and purpose

Serratus posterior, superior and interior. Origin-spinous processes, insertion-ribs. Concerned with respiratory function

21

What are the superficial spinal muscles?

Trapexius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid minor & major, levatus scapularis

22

What is the function of the superficial spinal muscle?

Movement of shoulder & upper limb

23

Describe trapezius

Trapezium shaped. Origin-spinous processes (>T12). Insertions: occiput, spine of scapula. Innvervation: Accessory nerve (CN XI). Function- elevates, depresses and retracts scapula

24

Describe latissimus dorsi

Broadest and back. Origin-spinous processes and pelvis. Insertions-humerus. Innervation: C6-8). Functions- adducts, extends, internally rotates the humerus

25

Describe rhomboid major & minor

Origin Minor: Spinous processes C7/T1, Major T2-5. Insertions-scapula. Innervation-dorsal scapula nerve (C3/4). Function-keeps scapula against thoracic wall, retracts scapula

26

Describe levatus scapuaris

Origin-transverse processes C1. Insertions: superior angle of scapula. Innervation: branches C4/5. Elevates scapula

27

What are the deep spinal muscles and function?

Erector spinae muscles (others but not clinically relevant)- movement of vertebral column and posture

28

Describe the erector spinae muscles

Laterally-iliocostalis. Intermediate- longisimus thoracis. Medially- spinalis thoracis. Origin-occiput of skull. Insertion-pelvis (multiple attachments along wall). Innervation- posterior rami of spinal nerves

29

Where does the spinal cord terminate?

Cauda equina at L2

30

What are myotomes?

Muscles controlled by the motor element of the nerve root from a specific level

31

What are dermatomes?

Skin sensation areas supplied by the sensory element of the nerve root from a specific level

32

What is contained in the white matter of the spinal cord?

Ascending sensory tracts and descending motor tracks

33

What are the descending motor tracts?

Crossed pyramidal or lateral cerebrospinal tract

34

What are the intervertebral foramina formed from?

The notch above and below the pedicle

35

How are nerve roots named?

Named for vertebrae below them, so nerve root is above- nerve root above C1, is called C1. Changes at vertebrae C7, below this is C8 nerve root. Then nerve root is named for vertebrae above this i.e. T1 nerve root is below T1 vertebrae

36

What spinal nerves and roots are contained in the cauda equina?

L2-5, S1-5, Coccygeal nerve

37

What motor function is provided by the cauda equina?

Movement of hips, knees, ankles, feet, internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter

38

What sensory function is provided by cauda equina?

Sensory function in hips, knees, ankles, feet, perineum and partially parasympathetic innervation of bladder