Flashcards in Clinical Anatomy Deck (38):
What are the characteristics of vertebrae in the thoracic region?
Increase in size T1-12. Small pedicles, long spinous processes. More vertical facet joints (60'). ROM limited; ribs/vertebrae connections and long spinous processes
What are the characteristics of vertebrae in the lumbar region?
Increases in size L1-5. Longer, wider pedicles. Spinous processes are horizontal. More horizontal facet joints (90')
Describe the purpose and structure of facet joints
Stabilise spinal column whilst allowing movement. Superior & inferior facet articulations, synovial joints, hyaline cartilage
Describe the purpose and structure of SIJ
Shock absorption whilst allowing movement. Designed for stability. Weight bearing synovial plane joint with irregular elevations and depressions that produce interlocking
What vertebrae make up the cervical region?
What vertebrae make up the lower cervical region?
What does C1 articulate with superiorly?
Occiput of the skull
What is the other name of the odontoid process on C2?
Describe the purpose and structure of vertebrae in the lower cervical region
Large foramen to admit wide spinal cord. Transervse foramen: vertebral artery, vein, nerve fibre. Small body with wide lamina, much shorter transverse processes
What is the vertebra prominens?
C7- First palpable
What is the most palpable vertebrae?
Where in the spine has the greatest risk of injury?
Cervico-thoracic and thoraco-lumbar junctions-at junctions of fixed and mobile segments
What is the peripheral structure of intervertebral discs?
What is the central structure of intervertebral discs?
What are the characteristics of annulus fibrosis?
Thin posteriorly, can rupture
What are the characteristics of nucleus pulposus?
What is the purpose of ligaments of the spine?
Add to stability of spinal column- as important as bony structures
What are the spinal ligaments?
Anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament (runs length of column), ligamentum flavum (link vertebral laminae) , supraspinous ligament, intraspinous
Describe the strength of ligamentum flavum, supraspinous and intraspinous ligaments
Tough and elastic, tough, relatively weak
What are the intermediate spinal muscles, origin, insertion and purpose
Serratus posterior, superior and interior. Origin-spinous processes, insertion-ribs. Concerned with respiratory function
What are the superficial spinal muscles?
Trapexius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid minor & major, levatus scapularis
What is the function of the superficial spinal muscle?
Movement of shoulder & upper limb
Trapezium shaped. Origin-spinous processes (>T12). Insertions: occiput, spine of scapula. Innvervation: Accessory nerve (CN XI). Function- elevates, depresses and retracts scapula
Describe latissimus dorsi
Broadest and back. Origin-spinous processes and pelvis. Insertions-humerus. Innervation: C6-8). Functions- adducts, extends, internally rotates the humerus
Describe rhomboid major & minor
Origin Minor: Spinous processes C7/T1, Major T2-5. Insertions-scapula. Innervation-dorsal scapula nerve (C3/4). Function-keeps scapula against thoracic wall, retracts scapula
Describe levatus scapuaris
Origin-transverse processes C1. Insertions: superior angle of scapula. Innervation: branches C4/5. Elevates scapula
What are the deep spinal muscles and function?
Erector spinae muscles (others but not clinically relevant)- movement of vertebral column and posture
Describe the erector spinae muscles
Laterally-iliocostalis. Intermediate- longisimus thoracis. Medially- spinalis thoracis. Origin-occiput of skull. Insertion-pelvis (multiple attachments along wall). Innervation- posterior rami of spinal nerves
Where does the spinal cord terminate?
Cauda equina at L2
What are myotomes?
Muscles controlled by the motor element of the nerve root from a specific level
What are dermatomes?
Skin sensation areas supplied by the sensory element of the nerve root from a specific level
What is contained in the white matter of the spinal cord?
Ascending sensory tracts and descending motor tracks
What are the descending motor tracts?
Crossed pyramidal or lateral cerebrospinal tract
What are the intervertebral foramina formed from?
The notch above and below the pedicle
How are nerve roots named?
Named for vertebrae below them, so nerve root is above- nerve root above C1, is called C1. Changes at vertebrae C7, below this is C8 nerve root. Then nerve root is named for vertebrae above this i.e. T1 nerve root is below T1 vertebrae
What spinal nerves and roots are contained in the cauda equina?
L2-5, S1-5, Coccygeal nerve
What motor function is provided by the cauda equina?
Movement of hips, knees, ankles, feet, internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter