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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (237):
1

compare the length of urethras in males and females?

male urethra is much longer than female urethra

2

explain how male urethras have a dual function?

both urine and semen pass through

3

what makes up the upper urinary tract?

kidneys
ureters

4

what makes up the lower urinary tract?

bladder
urethra

5

what bony structures mare the transition from abdomen to pelvis?

iliac crests
L4

6

at what vertebra level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?

L4

7

what surface of the kidneys touches the peritoneum?

anterior surface

8

what groups of skeletal muscles protect the kidneys?

muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall
muscles of the posterior abdominal wall
muscles of the back

9

what are the 3 muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?

external oblique
internal oblique
transversus abdominis

10

what are the 3 important structures of the renal hilum?

renal artery
renal vein
ureter

11

what are the 2 muscles of the posterior abdominal wall?

psoas major
quadratus lumborum

12

which is more anterior- psoas major or quadratus lumboru,?

psoas major

13

what surrounds the kidney?

the renal capsule

14

where does the perinephric fat lie?

surrounds renal capsule, deep to renal fascia

15

what type of fascia is renal fascia?

deep fascia

16

where doe the paranephric fat lie?

between the visceral peritoneum and the renal fascia

17

compare the position of the kidneys to the quadratus lumborum muscles?

kidneys lie anterior to quadratus lumborum muscles

18

compare the position of the kidneys to the psoas major muscles?

kidneys lie lateral to psoas major

19

which vertebral bodies does the right kidney lie lateral to?

L1, L2, L3

20

which vertebral bodies does the left kidney lie lateral to?

T12, L1, L2

21

why is the right kidney more inferior than the right?

due to size of liver

22

what ribs protect the kidney?

floating ribs 11 and 12

23

what regions/quadrants are the kidneys within?

R kidney: RUQ, right lumbar region
L kidney: LUQ, left lumbar region

24

which sac is the hepatorenal recess part of?

the greater sac

25

compare the location of the renal veins and renal arteries?

renal veins are anterior to renal arteries

26

compare the location of the common iliac veins and the common iliac arteries?

common iliac arteries are anterior to common iliac veins

27

where does lymph from the kidneys drain to?

lumbar lymph nodes

28

where are lumbar lymph nodes found?

located around abdominal aorta and IVC

29

where does lymph from the ureters drain to?

lumbar lymph nodes + iliac lymph nodes

30

where are iliac lymph nodes found?

around common, internal and external iliac vessels

31

the utereric arterial blood supply is from branches of which arteries?

renal artery
abdominal aorta
common iliac artery
internal iliac artery
vesical artery

32

compare an infrarenal and suprarenal AAA?

infrarenal aneurysm starts below level of renal arteries
suprarenal aneurysm starts above the level of renal arteries

33

what is the management of an AAA?

EVAR
endovascular aneurysm repair using a stent inserted through the femoral artery

34

when associated with an infrarenal AAA, what is renal artery stenosis caused by?

atherosclerosis

35

when associated with a suprarenal AAA, what is the renal artery stenosis?

proximity to aneurysm

36

what is a bifid renal pelvis?

anatomical variation when there is 2 pelvises extending from the major calyces instead of 1 pelvis

37

what is a bifid ureter?

anatomical variation in where there are 2 ureters at one side, these join before reaching the bladder

38

what is a unilateral duplicated ureter?

anatomical variation in where ther are 2 ureters at one side, these do not join

39

what is a retrocaval ureter?

anatomical variation where the ureter wraps behind the IVC instead of remaining lateral to it

40

what is a horseshoe kidney?

anatomical variation where the kidneys are connected

41

what is an ectopic pelvic kidney?

anatomical variation where a kidney is in the pelvis instead of the abdomen

42

what are the 3 reasons for a solitary kidney?

agenesis
patholoical nephrectomy
nephrectomy for donation

43

how many pyramids does a human kidney medulla contain?

27 pyramids

44

what gives the pyramids in the medulla the striped appearance/.

nephrons arranged axially

45

where does the collecting duct pass it's filtrate?

minor calyx

46

are nephrons within the cortex or medulla of a kidney?

medulla

47

the glomerulus filters blood arriving from water vessel?

branches of renal artery

48

what do the minor calyces join to form?

a major calyx

49

what do the major calyces join to form?

renal pelvis

50

the diameter of urine drainage tubes increases until what junction?

pelviureteric junction

51

where are the 3 anatomical sites of ureteric constriction?

-pelviureteric junction
-where ureter crosses common iliac artery
-ureteric orfice

52

what does the ureteric orfic open into?

the bladder

53

the ureter crosses the common iliac artery at what bony landmark?

pelvic brim

54

what does the pelvic brim divide?

the upper false pelvis and the lower true pelvis

55

what is the medical name for kidney stones?

renal calculi

56

what is the name for renal calculi with connections between them?

staghorn calculi

57

what type of muscle lines the wall of the ureter?

smooth muscle

58

what does the ureter do in order to dislodge an obstruction?

waves of peristalsis

59

what type of pain does a patient feel when there is something lodged within one of the ureters and why?

colicky paindue to peristalsis waves

60

what is renal failure?

failure to adequately filter blood to produce urine

61

do obstructions within calyces or ureter cause unilateral or bilateral kidney problems?

unilateral

62

do obstructions within the bladder cause unilateral or bilateral kidney problems?

unilateral or bilateral

63

do obstructions within the urethra cause unilateral or bilateral kidney problems?

bilateral

64

what is hydronephrosis?

back pressure into the kidney causing enlargment

65

why does hydronephrosis cause pain?

because it stretches the renal capsule

66

embryologically, what becomes the permanent kidney?

metanephros

67

what does the metanephros form from?

ureteric bud
metanephric blastema

68

is the kidney endoderm, ectoderm or mesoderm?

mesoderm

69

is the bladder endoderm, ectoderm or mesoderm?

endoderm

70

why does kidney agenesis occur?

because the ureteric bud doesn't come into contact with the metanephric blastema

71

which becomes the nephron- ureteric bud or the metanephric blastoma?

metanephric blastoma

72

embryologically, where do the kidneys develop?

in the pelvis

73

why does ectopic pelvis kidney occur?

failure of kidney to ascend

74

what are the rounded apexes of the renal pyramids called?

papilla

75

when the ureter crosses the pelvic brim (pelvic inlet), what part of the pelvis does it pass into?

the true pelvis

76

describe the location of the false pelvis?

from iliac crests to pelvic inlet (or brim)

77

describe the location of the true pelvis?

pelvic inlet to pelvic floor

78

in which cavity is the false pelvis in?

abdominal cavity

79

in which cavity is bladder in?

the pelvic cavity (true pelvis)

80

there are openings in the pelvic diaphragm to allow which 3 tracts to pas into the perineum?

alimentary tract
reproductive tract
renal tract

81

what does the pelvic diaphragm extend between?

sacrum to the pubis

82

which is the only part of the urinary system to be in the perineum?

urethra

83

when the ureters cross the common iliac arteries do they pass anteriorly or posteriorly?

anteriorly to the arteries

84

the ureters enter the posterior bladder wall in which direction?

inferomedial

85

in the anatomical position, what is the most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity in a male?

rectovesicle pouch

86

what is the function of the round ligament of the uterus?

attaches uterus to the perineum

87

what canal is the round ligament of the uterus found in?

inguinal canal

88

what are 2 pouches of peritoneum in the female?

recto-uterine pouch (of douglas)
vesico-uterine pouch

89

in the anatomical position, what is the most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity in a female?

recto-uterine pouch of douglas

90

compare the location of the ureter to the suspensory ligament of the ovary?

suspensory ligament of the ovary is lateral to the ureter

91

compare the location of the ureter to the uterine tubes and uterine artery?

the ureter runs inferiorly to both the uterine tubes and uterine artery
'water under the bridge'

92

compare the location of the ureter to the vas deferens?

ureter runs inferiorly to the vas deferens

93

are the arteries entering the pelvis mainly from the internal or external iliac arteries?

internal iliac arteries

94

are the veins draining the pelvis mainly the internal or external iliac veins?

internal iliac veins

95

which arteries do the prostatic arteries often branch from?

the vesical arteries

96

what form the three points of the trigone of the bladder?

ureteric orfices x2
internal urethral orfice

97

where is the prostate in relation to the bladder?

prostate is directly inferior

98

when empty, in which pelvis is the bladder contained in?

true pelvis

99

when full in which pelvis is the bladder contained in?

can expend into false pelvis

100

which border of the bladder is in contact with the peritoneum?

superior

101

what is the name of the part of the urethra which passes through the prostate?

prostatic urethra

102

around the internal urethral orfice, what muscle is present in males?

internal urethral sphincter

103

which muscle forms the bladder wall?

detrusor muscle

104

why does the detrusor muscle encircle the ureteric orfices?

contracts during bladder contraction to prevent reflux of urine into the ureters

105

which muscle makes the internal urethral sphincter muscle?

the detrusor

106

what is the function of the internal urethral sphincter muscle?

contracts during ejaculation to prevent retrograde ejaculation of semen into the bladder

107

which is the most anterior organ in the pelvis?

the bladder

108

what separates the uterus and the bladder?

vesicouterine pouch

109

what position is the uterus in?

anteflexed position

110

compare the relation of the bladder to the peritoneum when full and empty?

no change

111

what are the 2 routes of catherisation?

urethral
suprapubic (ie through abdominal wall)

112

why may a suprapubic method of catheterisation be used over uretheral catheterisation?

if there is a urethral obstruction

113

how long is the female urethra?

4cm

114

is the external urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary?

voluntary

115

how long is the male urethral?

20cm

116

is the internal urethral sphincter voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary

117

what part of the urethra is within the penis? (also known as the penile urethra)

spongy urethra

118

which cylinder of erectile tissue of the penis is the spongy urethra within?

corpus spongiosum

119

where is sperm produced?

seminiferous tubules

120

where is sperm stored?

epididymis

121

the vas deferens joins with the seminal duct to form what?

the ejaculatory duct

122

what is produced int he seminal glands?

semen

123

what part of the urethra does the ejaculatory duct drain into?

the prostatic urethra

124

what is the embryological origin of the testes?

posterior abdominal wall

125

what is contained within the spermatic cord?

testicular artery
testicular vein
vas deferens
lymphatic vessels
nerves

126

within the scrotum, what sac do the testis sit within?

tunica vaginalis

127

what is contained between the visceral and parietal layers of tunica vaginalis?

serous fluid

128

what is the name for too much fluid within the tunica vaginalis?

hydrocele

129

what is the function of the appendix testis?

none

130

what venous plexus drains blood from the testes?

pampiform plexus

131

what is the name for hwen the spermatic cord twists and disrupts the blood supply to the testis?

torsion

132

what does the pampiform plexus drain into?

testicular vein

133

where does the right testicular vein drain?

directly into the IVC

134

where does the left testicular vein drain?

to the left renal vein then to the IVC

135

what is in contact with the inferior aspect of the prostate gland?

levator ani muscle

136

what are the 3 zones of the prostate gland?

2 peripheral zones
1 central zone

137

which zones are felt on palapation of prostate? (PR)

peripheral zones

138

which zones within the prostate do cancers most likely arise in?

peripheral zones

139

what are the 3 cylinders of erectile tissue within the penis? (and describe location)

corpus cavernosum x2 posteriorly
corpus spongiosum x1 anteriorly

140

what does the corpus spongiosum transmit?

spongy urethra

141

what does the corpus cavernosum transmit?

deep arteries of the penis

142

what are the scrotal and penile raphes?

ridges of skin within the midline

143

which cylinder of erectile tissue is directly posterior to the midline raphe?

corpus spongiosum

144

what is paraphimosis?

when the prepuce is retracted and the glans swells

145

what is the management of paraphimosis?

circumsicion

146

what is the medical name for foreskin?

prepuce

147

what is the blood supply to the penis?

deep arteries of the penis

148

what artery are the deep arteries of the penis a branch of?

the internal pudendal artery

149

what artery is the internal pudendal artery a branch of?

the internal iliac artery

150

what is the blood supply to the scrotum?

internal pudendal artery from the internal iliac artery and branches of the external iliac artery

151

where does lymph from the scrotum and post of the penis (not the glans) drain to?

superficial inguinal lymph nodes

152

where are superficial inguinal lymph nodes found?

in superficial fascia in the groin

153

where does lymph from the testes drain to?

lumbar lymph nodes

154

what are the 5 types of nerve fibre modality?

somatic sensory
visceral afferent
somatic motor
parasympathetic
sympathetic

155

what nerve modality controls ureteric peristalsis?

sympathetic or parasympathetic

156

what nerve modality controls bladder contraction?

sympathetic or parasympathetic

157

what nerve modality controls the external sphincter?

somatic motor

158

what nerve modality controls the levator ani?

somatic motor

159

what nerve modaliry controls the internal sphincter?

sympathetic/parasympathetic

160

what part of the urinary system is different with regards to pain being carried by somatic sensory instead of visceral afferent nerve fibres?

distal urethra

(part of the perineum so somatic sensory)

161

from which spinal cord levels is there sympathetic outflow?

T1 to L2

162

do sympathetic fibres reaching the body wall synapse in the sympathetic chain?

yes

163

do sympathetic fibres reaching the smooth muscles/glands of the body synapse in the sympathetic chain? (ignoring supply of the head)

no

164

what are the 2 groups of nerves which carry sympathetic supply to the smooth muscles /glands (organs) of the body?

cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves
abdominpelvic splanchnic nerves

165

how do sympathetic nerve fibres reach the structures of the head?

synapse in sympathetic chain then 'hitch a ride' with arteries which supply the same structures

166

what is the name of the connections between the anterior rami of the spinal cord and the sympathetic chain?

rami communications

167

how many cervical sympathetic chain ganglia are there?

3
superior, middle inferior

168

which splanchnic nerves do the sympathetic nerve fibres which supply the kidneys, ureter and bladder leave with?

abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves

169

are the sympathetic nerve fibres within the abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves pre or post synaptic neurones?

pre synaptic neurones
(do not synapse at the sympathetic chain)

170

where do the sympathetic nerve fibres which carry supply to the kidneys, ureters and bladder (within abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves) synapse?

abdominal sympathetic ganglia

171

where are abdominal sympathetic ganglia located?

around central branches of the abdominal aorta
(eg coeliac's trunk, SMA, IMA)

172

where do the postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibres go once synapsing at the abdominal sympathetic ganglion?

take part in the periarterial plexus on the arteries which are heading to the same organ that they innervate

173

apart from sympathetic nerve fibres, which other nerve modalities are present in periarterial plexuses on the arteries heading to the kidneys, ureters and bladder?

parasympathetic supply
visceral afferent

174

what are the 7 in total cranial/spinal nerves which contain parasympathetic supply?

CN III, VII, IX, X
S2,3,4

175

what group of nerves carry parasympathtic supply to the hindgut and pelvic organs?

pelvic splanchnic nerves

176

compare abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves?

abdominopelvic splanchnic: sympathetic supply
pelvic splanchnic: parasympathetic supply

177

what carries parasympathetic fibres to the kidneys?

vagus nerve

178

what carries parasympathetic fibres to the bladder?

pelvic splanchnic nerves

179

what carries parasympathetic fibres to the ureters?

vagus nerve

180

what spinal cord level do pelvic splanchnic nerves come from?

S2,3,4

181

what 3 main parts of the urinary tract are supplied by somatic motor innervation?

distal urethra
external urethral sphincter
levator ani

182

what is the main nerve swhich supplies the external urethral sphincter with somatic motor supply?

pudendal nerve

183

which spinal nerves make up the pudendal nerve?

S2,3,4

184

which nerve modality stimulates the detrusor muscle to contract and via what nerve(s)?

parasympathetic fibres from pelvic splanchnic nerves

185

during ejaculation, which nerve modality stimulates the contraction of the internal urethral sphincter?

sympathetic fibres

186

which nerve modality inhibits the contraction of the internal urethral sphincter to allow urine to follow into the urethra?

parasympathetic fibres

187

which nerve modality stimulates the external urethral sphincter to contract and via what nerve(s)?

somatic motor
pudendal nerve (S2,3,4)

188

which nerve modality stimulates the levator ani muscle to contract and via what nerves(s)?

somatic motor
pudendal nerve (S2,3,4)

189

why is pain from the distal part of the urethra much more localised than pain from elsewhere in the urinary tract?

perineum has somatic sensory supply
elsewhere has visceral afferent supply

190

what is the name of the posterior aspect of the flank region?

loin

191

where is pain from the kidney itself felt?

loin on the affected side

192

where is the pain from a calculus obstructing the ureter felt?

radiation from loin to groin on affected side

193

where is the pain from the bladder usually felt?

suprapubic region

194

where is the pain from the distal urethra felt?

localised in the perineum

195

visceral afferents from the kidneys run back to the spinal cord alongside which- sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibres?

sympathetic nerve fibres

196

which spinal cord levels do visceral afferents from the kidneys enter?

T11 to L1

197

which is the most common differential for loin pain?

muscular

198

visceral afferents from the ureters run alongside which- sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibres?

sympathetic nerve fibres

199

which spinal cord levels do visceral afferents from the ureters enter?

T11 to L2

200

visceral afferents from the superior part of the bladder (which touches the peritoneum) run along side which- sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibres?

sympathetic nerve fibres

201

which spinal cord levels do visceral afferents from the superior part of the bladder enter?

T11- L2

202

visceral afferents from the inferior part of the bladder (ie part that doesn't touch the peritoneum) run alongside which- sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibres?

parasympathetic nerve fibres

203

which spinal cord levels do visceral afferents from the inferior part of the bladder enter?

S2,3,4

204

visceral afferents from the superior part of the urethra run alongside which- sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibres?

parasympathetic nerve fibres

205

somatic sensory nerve fibres from the inferior part of the urethra are carried by what nerve back to the spinal cord?

pudendal S2,3,4

206

visceral afferents from the testis run alongisde which- sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve fibres?

sympathetic nerve fibres

207

which spinal cord level do visceral afferents from the superior urethra enter?

S2,3,4

208

which spinal cord level do visceral afferents from the testis enter?

T10-11

209

what within the bladder do visceral afferent fibres sense?

stretch
(distension)

210

what spinal roots is the sciatic nerve made from?

L4,5
S1,2,3

211

what area does the iliohypogastric nerve supply?

skin of lateral gluteal redion

212

what spinal roots is the iliohypogastric nerve made from?

L1

213

what area does the ilioinguinal nerve supply?

skin around perineum area

214

what spinal roots is the ilioinguinal nerve made from?

L1

215

what area does the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh supply?

skin of the lateral side of the thigh

216

what spinal roots is the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh made from?

L2,3

217

what does the genitofemoral nerve supply?

skin of the perineum

218

what spinal roots is the genitofemoral nerve made from?

L1,2

219

what does the femoral nerve supply?

anterior compartment of the thigh

220

what spinal roots is the femoral nerve made from?

L2,3,4

221

what does the obturator nerve supply?

medial compartment of the thigh

222

what spinal roots is the obturator nerve made from?

L2,3,4

223

the femoral nerve reaches the anterior compartment of the thigh by passing under what?

the inguinal ligament

224

the obturator nerve reaches the medial compartment of the thigh by passing through what?

the obturator foramen of the pelvis

225

which nerve supplies the lateral muscle compartment of the leg?

superficial fibular

226

which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the leg?

deep fibular

227

which nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the leg?

tibial

228

which nerve supplies the intrinsic muscles of the foot?

tibial

229

which nerve becomes the saphenous nerve?

the femoral nerve

230

what nerve supplies the skin of the posterior thigh?

posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh

231

which nerve supplies the skin of the anterior thigh?

femoral nerve

232

which nerve supplies the skin of the lateral leg?

sciatic nerve

233

which nerve supplies sensation to the plantr aspect of the foot?

tibial nerve

234

which nerve supplies the sensation to the lateral aspect of the foot?

sural nerve

235

which nerve supplies the sensation to the medial aspect of the foot?

saphenous nerve

236

which nerve supplies the sensation to the dorsum of the foot? *except the 1st web space)

superficial fibular

237

which nerve supplies the sensation to the 1st web space of the dorsum of the foot?

deep fibular