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Flashcards in Histology Deck (51):
1

what 2 hormones does the kidney produce?

renin
erythropoietin

2

what is the function of renin?

acts to increase blood pressure through RAS system

3

what is the function of erythropoietin?

increases rate of RBC production

4

what is the name of the spaces between the minor calyces?

renal sinuses

5

what is the functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

6

what are the 2 main parts of the nephron?

renal corpuscle
renal tubules

7

what are the 2 main parts of the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus
bowmans capsule

8

what type of epithelium is Bowman's capsule made from?

simple squamous epithelium

9

what supplies the glomerulus with blood?

afferent arteriole

10

what drains the glomerulus?

efferent arteriole

11

what are the 2 cell layers between the blood and the glomerular filtate?

capillary endothelium
podocytes

12

what thick layer is between the capillary endothelium of the glomerulur and the podocytes?

thick basal lamina
(including basement membrane)

13

what is the function of the scattered mesangial cells around the podocytes?

produce a connective tissue core called mesangium
act as support cells
help control flow of blood
remove debris

14

what type of epithleium is the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron made of?

simple cuboidal epithelium

15

compare the apical surface of the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubule to thee distal convoluted tubule?

PCT has a very susbstantial brush border with microvilli
DCT only has a few microvilli

16

the proximal convoluted tubules are characteristially 'hairy' in appearance, what causes this?

the substantial brush border

17

what are the 3 distinct limbs of the loop of henle?

thin descending limb
thin ascending limb
thick ascending limb

18

which part of the kidney is the renal corpuscle within?

the cortex

19

which part of the kidney is the proximal convoluted tubule within?

the cortex

20

which part of the kidney is the loop of Henle within?

the medulla

21

what cells line the thin ascending loop of Henle?

simple squamous epithelium

22

what cells line the thin descending loop of Henle?

simple squamous epithelium

23

what cells line the thick ascending loop of Henle?

simple cuboidal epithelium

24

what is the name of the blood vessels which dip down from the cortex into the medulla, do a loop and then climb back up to the cortex?

vasa recta

25

describe the blood flow in vasa recta?

sluggish blood flow

26

what part of the kidney are the distal convoluted tubules found in?

the cortex

27

what cells line the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron?

simple cuboidal epithelium

28

what are medullary rays?

parallel segments of collecting ducts and tubules orientated down towards the medulla

29

what part of the kidney are the medullary rays found?

the cortex

30

which part of the nephron is responsive to ADH?

collecting ducts

31

what cells line the collecting ducts?

simple columnar epithelium

32

what are the collecting ducts sometimes referred to as?

ducts of Bellini

33

what is the nae of the specialised region formed where the distal convoluted tubule crosses the renal corpuscle?

juxtaglomerular apparatus

34

what are the 3 components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

macula dense
juxtaglomerular cells
extraglomerular mesangial cells

35

what is the name of the extraglomerular mesangial cells which are part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

lacis cells

36

where are the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus found?

line the specialised area of distal convoluted tubule

37

what is the function of the macula dense cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

sense ion concentrations

38

where are the juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus found?

in the wall of the afferent arteriole

39

what type of cells are the juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

modified smooth muscle cells

40

what is the function of the juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

secrete renin

41

what is almost all of the conducting parts of the urinary tract lined with?

transitional epithelium/ urothelium

42

is transitional epithelium/urothelium which lines the urinary tract simple, stratified or pseudostratified?

stratified

43

what are the names of the cells are the luminal surface of the conducting parts of the urinary tract?

umbrella cells

44

what are umbrella cells?

domed shaped cells which have a thickened impermeable membrane

line most of the conducting parts of the urinary tract

45

why might the transitional epithelium /urothelium of the conducting parts of the urinary tract vary in cell thickness?

due to different states of distension

46

as you go more distal down the ureter, what happens to the thickeness of the surrounding smooth muscle?

increases

47

in a female, what lines the urethra?

initially transitional epithelium/ urothelium
then changes to stratified squamous epithelium near its termination

48

in a male, what lines the prostatic urethra?

transitional epithelium/urothelium

49

in a male, what lines the membranous urethra?

stratified columnar epithelium

50

in a male, what lines the penile urethra?

initially stratified columnar epithelium
then changes to stratified squamous epithelium near its termination

51

what epithelium lines the prostate?

simple columnar secretory epithelium