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Year 2 - Endocrinology (DP) > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (68):
1

What is the hypophysis?

Pituitary gland

2

Where are the adrenal glands and pancreas located?

Retroperitoneum

3

Where are the ovaries located?

Female pelvis:
- In broad ligament

4

Where are the testes located?

Male perineum:
- In scrotum

5

What forms the diencephalon?

Thalamus + Hypothalamus

6

What does the diencephalon form?

Central core of cerebrum

7

How is the pituitary gland connected to the hypothalamus?

Infundibulum (pituitary stalk):
- Both anatomically + functionally

8

Where does the pituitary fossa lie?

In the midline
In pituitary fossa:
- Of sphenoid bone
- Within sella turica (Turkish saddle)

9

What parts is the retina divided into?

Nasal (Medial)
Temporal (Lateral)

10

Where do the optic canals run?

Sphenoid bone

11

Where do the pituitary glands run in relation to the optic chiasm?

Immediately inferior

12

What forms the optic chiasm?

Right and left optic nerves

13

What passes posteriorly from the optic chiasm? Where do these synapse?

Optic tracts:
- Synapse in thalamus

14

After the thalamus where do the next axons pass via?

Optic radiation to visual cortex:
- In occiptal lobe

15

On what part of the retina does our nasal visual field fall onto?

Temporal part

16

What effect does a pituitary tumour have on the visual pathway?

Compresses optic chiasm:
- Disrupts AP transmission from nasal retina
- Bitemporal hemianopia

17

What methods of surgical access to the pituitary fossa exist?

Transcranial approach:
- Subfrontal
Trans-sphenoid approach:
- Vias nasal cavities + sphenoid sinus

18

What forms the roof of the nasal cavity?

Cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

19

What forms the superior part of the nasal septum?

Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

20

What forms the inferior part of the nasal septum?

Vomer

21

What forms most of the hard palate?

Maxilla

22

What bone forms the superior and middle nasal conchae?

Ethmoid

23

True or false; The inferior nasal concha is its own bone?

True

24

Where are the following paranasal sinuses located:
1. Frontal sinuses
2. Maxillary sinuses
3. Ethmoidal air cells
4. Sphenoid sinuses

1. Often connect in midline of frontal bone
2. One in each maxilla
3. 3 groups (on each side) between:
- Nasal cavity AND
- Orbits
4. Within body of sphenoid (may join in midline)

25

What is the alternate name for the maxillary sinuses?

Antra

26

What lines the paranasal sinuses?

Mucous-secreting respiratory mucosa

27

What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?

Make mucous:
- Drain into masal cavities via ostia
Reduce weight of skull
Add vocal resonance
(Increase buoyancy in aquatic mammals)

28

What is adherent to all the internal aspects of the bones of the cranial vault?

Dura mater

29

What is the Diaphragm Sellae?

Tough sheet of dura mater:
- Forms roof over pituitary fossa
- Superior to pituitary gland

30

What is the Tentorium Cerebelli?

Tough sheet of dura mater:
- 'Tents' over cerebellum in posterior cranial fossa
- Central gap -> Brainstem

31

What drains most of the venous blood from the cranial cavity and brain? Where do they drain to?

Dural venous sinuses -> Internal jugular veins at jugular foraminae (floor of posterior cranial fossa)

32

What venous sinuses surround the pituitary gland?

Cavernous sinuses
Intercavernous sinuses:
- Anterior + posterior parts
- Connect left + right cavernous sinuses

33

Where do the internal carotid arteries pass through?

Cavernous sinuses

34

What happens if CN iii is damaged during pituitary surgery?

Problems with eye movements
Dilated pupil

35

Which of the following nerves cannot be damaged in pituitary surgery:
- Trochlear nerve
- Trigeminal nerve
- Adbucent nerve
- Facial nerve

Facial nerve

36

What happens in the dura mater is damaged?

CSF leak

37

What does the thyroid consist of?

2 lateral lobes:
- Joined by an isthmus

38

What are the lobes of the thyroid connected to?

Lateral aspects of:
- Thyroid cartilage
- Cricoid cartilage
Trachea

39

What does the isthmus lie anterior to?

2nd + 3rd tracheal cartilages

40

True or false; A goitre will move with swallowing?

True

41

What is the approximate size of a parathyroid gland?

Rice grain

42

What is a pyramidal thyroid lobe and where does it originate (usually)?

Accessory lobe arising from the isthmus:
- May attach to thyroid cartilage
- Can extend to hyoid

43

What is the prevalence of a pyramidal lobe?

28-55% (Mean is 44.6%)

44

What does the embryological development of the thyroid begin as and where?

Midline epithelial proliferation at junction of:
- Anterior 2/3 of tongue
- Posterior 1/3 of tongue

45

What does the origin of the thyroid gland become in adults?

Foramen caecum

46

What happens after the thyroid develops?

Migrates inferiorly

47

As the thyroid migrates, what is it attached to and when does it reach its final position?

Tongue:
- Via thyroglossal duct
7th week of gestation

48

What can be found along the migratory path of the thyroid?

Thyroglossal duct cysts
Ectopic thyroid tissue

49

What muscles lie in the superficial fascia of the neck, what do they control and what is their nerve supply?

Platysma muscles:
- Facial expression
- Facial nerve

50

What is the investing (deep) fascia deep to and what does it contain?

Deep to superficial fascia
Contains:
- All other neck fascial compartments
- Trapezius
- Sternocleidomastoid

51

What is the prevertebral fascia deep to and what does it contain?

Deep to investing fascia:
- Anteriorly
Contains:
- Cervical vertebrae
- Postural neck muscles

52

What is the pretracheal fascia deep to and what does it contain?

Deep to investing fascia:
- Anteriorly
Contains:
- Strap muscles
- Thyroid
- Trachea and oesophagus
- Recurrent laryngeal nerves

53

How can infection spread between the prevertebral and pretracheal fasciae?

Via the retropharyngeal space

54

What are the carotid sheaths deep to and what do they contain?

Deep to investing fascis:
- Anterolaterally -> Either side of thyroid
Contain:
- Internal jugular veins
- Carotid arteries
- Vagus nerves
- Deep cervical LNs

55

What do the carotid sheaths attach to?

Superiorly:
- Base of skull (around jugular foramen)
Inferiorly:
- Blend with mediastinal fascia

56

What are the origins and insertion of the sternocleidomastoid?

Origins:
- Sternal head -> manubrium
- Clavicular head -> Medial end of clavicle
Insertion:
- Mastoid process of temporal bone

57

What does the descending part of the trapezius attach to?

Inferiorly:
- Spine of scapula
- Lateral end of clavicle

58

What nerve supplies the motor aspects SCD and trapezius?

Spinal accessory nerve

59

What does the anterior jugular vein drain into?

External jugular vein

60

What is the blood supply to the thyroid (and parathyroids) and where do they arise?

Superior thyroid arteries:
- One right + one left
- From external carotid arteries
Inferior thyroid arteries:
- One right + one left
- From subclavian arteries

61

What drains the thyroid gland and where do they drain?

Superior + middle thyroid veins:
- One on each side
- Drain to internal jugular veins
Inferior thyroid vein:
- Drain into brachiocephalic veins

62

What is the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

Superior + inferior deep cervical nodes
(Also a pretracheal node + some paratracheal nodes)

63

What somatic branches of the vagus nerve supply the larnyx?

Superior laryngeal nreve
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve

64

What is the path of the right vagus nerve through the chest?

Along right lateral trachea
Posterior to right lung root
Onto oesophagus

65

What is the path of the left vagus nerve through the chest?

Left side of aortic arch:
- Gives off left recurrent laryngeal
Posterior to left lung root
Onto oesophagus

66

What incision is made for a thyroidectomy?

Collar incision along Langer's lines:
- Superior to clavicles + jugular notch
- Through skin + platysma muscles

67

What are the symptoms of a unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury?

Hoarse/Weak voice
Weak cough

68

What are the symptoms of a bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury?

Aphonia
Inability to close rima glottidis:
- Aspiration
- Poor coughin