Radiology Flashcards Preview

Year 2 - Endocrinology (DP) > Radiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiology Deck (25):
1

On what scan is the pituitary well seen?

MRI

2

Where is the pituitary found?

In sella turica
Closely related to sphenoid sinus
Found inferior to optic chiasm and hypothalamus

3

How is the pituitary connected to the brain?

Pituitary stalk

4

Where do the carotid arteries lie in relation to the pituitary?

Laterally

5

What is the thyroid gland well visualised on?

CT
USS
Nuclear medicine

6

Where is the thyroid in relation to the common carotid arteries and the internal jugular veins?

Medial

7

When is a thyroid USS used?

Euthyroid patients with goitre/palpable nodules
Hyperthyroud patients with focal masses/radioisotope uptake

8

What chemicals are used for thyroid scintigraphy?

Iodine-123
OR
Tc 99m:
- Used in Ninewells
- Injected IV -> Patient imaged after 20 mins

9

What are scintigraphy images assessed for?

Pattern and quality of tracer uptake

10

Homogenously increased tracer uptake, >3% of total tracer in gland. What condition is this seen in?

Grave's disease

11

Homogenously reduced tracer uptake?

Thyroiditis

12

Focal uptake right upper pole.

Multi-nodular goitre with dominant nodule

13

What scans are the adrenal glands readily seen on?

CT
MRI

14

Where does the right adrenal gland lie?

Posterior to IVC

15

Where does the left adrenal gland lie?

Lateral to aorta
Lateral to left diaphragmatic crus

16

How do long bones start developmentally and what happens?

Start as cartilage
Undergo endochondral ossification

17

Where do cartilaginous bones ossify first and then second?

First -> Within diaphysis
Second -> Within epiphysis

18

How is bone girth increased?

By cells from the periosteum laying down circumferential new bone on periphery of existing cortex

19

What condition is characterised by diffusely brittle bones?

Osteoporosis

20

What conditions are characterised by diffusely soft bones?

Rickets/Osteomalacia
Paget's Disease

21

What are some radiographic features of Rickets?

Non-ossification of soft osteoid
Widened growth plates
Irregular, flat metaphyses

22

What are some radiographic features of Osteomalacia?

Non-ossification of soft osteoid
Poor cortico-medullary differentiation

23

What are some radiographic features of Paget's Disease?

Initial lytic phases -> Well defined lucencies
Later slcerotic phase:
- Enlarged bone
- Increased density
- Coarse trabecular pattern

24

What is seen in lytic bone destruction?

Medullary lucency and loss of trabeculae
Loss of inner cortex (endosteum)
Complete loss of cortex
Loss of both cortices

25

What is seen in a sclerotic bone lesion?

Subtle medullary density and loss of trabeculae
Spreading zone of density which includes cortex
Featureless white bone
Expansion beyond normal bone limits, with cortical destruction