Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (341)
What does the telencephalon form?
What does the diencephalon form?
What does the mesencephalon form?
What does the metencephalon form?
What does the myelencephalon form?
What is the brainstem?
Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
What are the most numerous cells in the CNS?
What roles are astrocytes involved in?
Support, maintaining the BBB, environmental homeostasis
What do oligodendrocytes produce?
Myelin in the CNS (not PNS)
Numerous branches that extend to produce internodes of myelin around axons. Round nucleus
What are microglia?
Cells of similar lineage to macrophages (haemopoietic origin)- immune monitoring and antigen presentation
What is the appearance of microglia in a resting state?
Elongated nucleus and have a number of short spiny cell processes
What is the appearance of microglia in an activated state?
Become rounder and take on a similar appearance to macrophages
What can activate microglia?
What are the 4 major types of glial cells?
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells
Describe ependymal cells
Ciliated cuboidal/columnar epithelium that lines the ventricles
What is a folium?
Equivalent to a gyrus in the cerebral hemispheres
What makes up the grey matter?
Huge numbers of neurons, cell processes, synapses and support cells
What makes up the white matter?
Medullary centre- axons (most myelinated) and their support cells
Where is the parietal lobe located?
Posterior to central sulcus, superior to lateral sulcus, and anterior to a line from parieto-occiptal sulcus to the preoccipital notch
Where is the occipital lobe located?
Posterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipital notch
Where is the temporal lobe located?
Inferior to the lateral sulcus and posteirorly by a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch
What role does the insular lobe have?
Patient's experience of pain
What are the 3 meningeal layers?
What is contained within the arachnoid mater?
Subarachnoid space containing CSF
Where is the enteric nervous system found?
In digestive system from oesophagus to rectum
Where are the neurons of the ENS found?
Largely in two plexuses in the walls of the gut (myenteric plexus between outer layers of smooth muscle, submucosal plexus in submucosa)
What is the T4 spinal nerve segment identified by?
What is the T10 spinal nerve segment identified by?