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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (341)
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1

What does the telencephalon form?

Cerebral hemispheres

2

What does the diencephalon form?

Thalamus, hypothalamus

3

What does the mesencephalon form?

Midbrain

4

What does the metencephalon form?

Pons, cerebellum

5

What does the myelencephalon form?

Medulla oblongata

6

What is the brainstem?

Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

7

What are the most numerous cells in the CNS?

Glial cells

8

What roles are astrocytes involved in?

Support, maintaining the BBB, environmental homeostasis

9

What do oligodendrocytes produce?

Myelin in the CNS (not PNS)

10

Describe oligodendrocytes

Numerous branches that extend to produce internodes of myelin around axons. Round nucleus

11

What are microglia?

Cells of similar lineage to macrophages (haemopoietic origin)- immune monitoring and antigen presentation

12

What is the appearance of microglia in a resting state?

Elongated nucleus and have a number of short spiny cell processes

13

What is the appearance of microglia in an activated state?

Become rounder and take on a similar appearance to macrophages

14

What can activate microglia?

Bacteria infection

15

What are the 4 major types of glial cells?

Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells

16

Describe ependymal cells

Ciliated cuboidal/columnar epithelium that lines the ventricles

17

What is a folium?

Equivalent to a gyrus in the cerebral hemispheres

18

What makes up the grey matter?

Huge numbers of neurons, cell processes, synapses and support cells

19

What makes up the white matter?

Medullary centre- axons (most myelinated) and their support cells

20

Where is the parietal lobe located?

Posterior to central sulcus, superior to lateral sulcus, and anterior to a line from parieto-occiptal sulcus to the preoccipital notch

21

Where is the occipital lobe located?

Posterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipital notch

22

Where is the temporal lobe located?

Inferior to the lateral sulcus and posteirorly by a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch

23

What role does the insular lobe have?

Patient's experience of pain

24

What are the 3 meningeal layers?

Dura mater
Arachnoid space
Pia mater

25

What is contained within the arachnoid mater?

Subarachnoid space containing CSF

26

Where is the enteric nervous system found?

In digestive system from oesophagus to rectum

27

Where are the neurons of the ENS found?

Largely in two plexuses in the walls of the gut (myenteric plexus between outer layers of smooth muscle, submucosal plexus in submucosa)

28

What is the T4 spinal nerve segment identified by?

Male nipple

29

What is the T10 spinal nerve segment identified by?

Umbilicus

30

What does the C2-4 segment supply?

Posterior scalp, neck and shoulder