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ANSC3104 Nervous system > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (118)
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1

Nervous System

Major controlling, regulatory and communication system of the body

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Central nervous sytem components

Brain & spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system components

Spinal nerves & cranial nerves

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Nueron

An elongated cell that consists of cell body, which contains nucleus and a variable number of processes (axons & dendrites)

- Excitable tissue

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Dendrites

Receive information
Usually short

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Axon

Transmit information to the end and then too other cells

- Usually only one axon per neuron
- Usually long

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Example of nerve fibres

Dendrites & axons

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Function of neuroglia (supporting cells)

- Hold the neurons and their processes in place
- provide nourishment
- insulate them from their surroundings (preventing 'leakage' of the impulses they convey)

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What is the conducting portion of a neuron?

Axon

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Clusters of cell bodies are called?

Ganglions

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Cluster of cell dendrites or axons (fibres) are called?

Nerves

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The junction between neurons is?

A synapse

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What type of neurons constitute most of the nervous system?

Interneurons

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true or false - Glial cells make up 90% of CNS

True

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Four types of glial cells in CNS?

1. Astrocytes
2. Oligodendrocytes (myelin)
3. Ependymal cells
4. Microglia

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One type of glial cell in PNS

Schwann cells (myelin)

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What happens to glial cells during foetal development?

Glial cells wrap themselves around the axon. They eventually lose most of their cytoplasm and what remains is layers of tightly packed lipid membranes

Gaps in myelin sheath occur at regular intervals, forming nodes of Ranvier

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Gaps in myelin sheath occur at regular intervals, forming

Nodes of Ranvier

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What type of glial cell is the most abundant?

Astrocytes
- formation of blood-brain barrier
- Physical support
- Neurotransmitter recycling
- Brain repair

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Astrocytes

- Most abundant glial cell
- Formation of blood-brain barrier
- Physical support
- Brain repair
- Neurotransmitter recycling

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Ependymal cells

Line internal cavities of CNS
Form CSF: cilia
neural stem cells (stroke rehabilitation)
Associated with ventricles in the brain

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Microglia

CNS immune defence cells
10-15% of cells
Mop up anything that gets passed blood-brain barrier

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Oligodendrocytes (CNS) & Schwann cells (PNS)

Form lipid based myelin sheaths around axons
Fast conduction of nerve impulses
Energy efficient
Nodes of Ranvier: help current impulse

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What is a nerve?

A nerve is a visible collection of neuronal fibres held together by connective tissue
No cell body
Found only in PNS

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True or false:
Nerves exist in CNS & PNS

False, nerves only exist in PNS (called tracts in CNS)

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What is a bundle of axons called in CNS?

Tract

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Forebrain includes:

Telencephalon
Diencephalon

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Telencephalon includes:

Cerebrum

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Diencephalon includes:

Thalamus & Hypothalamus

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Midbrain includes:

Mesencephalon