Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (65):
What is the ala of the nose?
the side of the nostrils
What is the philtrum?
the dip in the upper lip
Superior bone of the nasal cavity
Inferior bone of the nasal cavity
What does the ethmoid bone contribute to in the nose? (3)
the roof, the lateral walls and the septum
What does the ethmoid bone contribute to in the roof of the nose?
the cribiform plate and the crista galli (the anterior cranial fossa)
What does the ethmoid bone contribute to in the lateral wall of the nose?
the superior and middle conchae, ethmoid air cells and orbital plate of the ethmoid
Which Le Fort fractures can disrupt the cribiform plate?
types II and III
3 types of epithelium in the nasal cavities?
keratinised stratified squamous epithelium; respiratory epithelium; olfactory mucosa
What is the pterion
the H-shaped sutures between the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bone which is the thinnest part of the skull
Which bone contains the oragns of hearing and balance ?
Which nerves are contained within the temporal bone?
Facial nerve, vestibulocochlear
What are the two parts to the temporal bone?
the squamous and petrous part
Where is the external ear?
from the auricle to tympanic membrane
Where is the middle ear?
the tympanic membrane to the oval window
What is contained in the middle ear?
the eustachian tube
What is the role of the middle ear?
amplify and conduct the sound waves to the internal ear
Where is the internal ear?
the oval window to the internal acoustic meatus
What is the role of the interal ear?
converts special sensory info into fluid waves and APs --> the brain
What is the helix of the ear?
the ring of cartilage around the outside of the ear
Nerve supply to the auricle of the ear (4)
C2,3 spinal nerve (most of auricle); CN VII (dotted around the opening); CN X (the inferior part of the external acoustic meatus + some tympanic membrane); CN V3 (the superior part of the external acoustic meatus + most of tympanic membrane)
where does the lateral surface of the superior half of the auricle drain?
parotid lymph nodes
Where does the cranial surface of the superior half of the auricle drain?
mastoid lymph nodes (deep and cervical)
Where does the rest of the auricle drain?
the superficial lymph nodes
Where is the eventual pathway of all the auricular lymphatic drainage?
deep cervical nodes --> thoracic duct or R. lymphatic duct --> venous angle
Skeleton of the external ear?
temporal bone and elastic cartilage
Type of cartilage around the external ear?
What composes the ear canal?
skin, cartilage, bone
What glands produce earwax?
What direction should you pull the auricle when examining a child?
What direction should you pull the auricle when examining an adult?
What is the thin part of the tympanic membrane called?
What should appear on the tympanic membrane when examining with an otoscope?
a cone of light - anteroinferiorly
What is the umbo?
the most inwardly depressed part of the tympanic membrane
Primary nerve supply to external tympanic membrane
nerve supply to internal tympanic membrane
Where does the glossopharyngeal nerve supply sensory innervation? [ENT]
middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, nasopharynx, oropharynx, tonsils
What does the eustachian tube connect?
tympanic cavity to the lateral wall of the nasopharynx
CN's which can cause referred ear ache
V, VII, IX and X, C2/3
What are the auditory ossicles?
Malleus, Incus, Stapes
(Think I MISheard that)
where is the epitympanic recess?
superior to the tympanic membrane
Where does the footplate of the stapes attach
the oval window
What is properly posterior to the tympanic membrane?
Where is the adenoid tonsil?
in the nasopharynx
Where does the eustachian tube open?
in the nasopharynx
nerve supply of the eustachian tube?
What nerve supplies the laryngopharynx?
What course does the facial nerve take out of the cranial cavity?
internal acousitc meatus and stylomastoid process
CN V3 sensory supplies...?(5)
the TMJ, the muscles of mastication, the teeth, parotid and submandibular gland, anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
Where does the facial nerve travel through the base of the skull?
the petrous temporal bone
Where does the facial nerve sensory supply?
sphenoid sinus, nasal mucosa, soft palate
Supply of the vagus nerve?
supraglottic larynx, laryngeal and lingual surfaces of the larynx,
supplies the taste buds on the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue?
chorda tympani of CN VII
Which salivary glands does CN VII supply?
submandibular and sublingual - chorda tympani
Which salivary glands does CN IX supply?
Parotid gland - via the otic ganglion
General sensory supply to the anterior tongue is from...
CN V3 - mandibular branch of trigeminal - foramen rotundum
Special sensory supply to the anterior tongue is from...
CN VII - facial
Sensory (general and special) supply to the posterior tongue is from...
CN IX - glossopharyngeal
Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull?
hypoglossal canal - travels alongside carotid sheath to the level of lingual artery
The muscles of the tongue are innervated by...
CN XII - hypoglossal
4 main muscles of the tongue
Genioglossus (big one), Styloglossus (most posterior), Palatoglossus (ant. to styloglossus), Hyoglossus (attaches hyoid)
Where is the blood supply to the tongue from?
Where does the lingual artery originate?
Which nerve passes through the palatine foramen?
CN V2 - maxillary branch of trigeminal - foramen ovale