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Y2 ENT > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (65):
1

What is the ala of the nose?

the side of the nostrils

2

What is the philtrum?

the dip in the upper lip

3

Superior bone of the nasal cavity

the ethmoid

4

Inferior bone of the nasal cavity

the vomer

5

What does the ethmoid bone contribute to in the nose? (3)

the roof, the lateral walls and the septum

6

What does the ethmoid bone contribute to in the roof of the nose?

the cribiform plate and the crista galli (the anterior cranial fossa)

7

What does the ethmoid bone contribute to in the lateral wall of the nose?

the superior and middle conchae, ethmoid air cells and orbital plate of the ethmoid

8

Which Le Fort fractures can disrupt the cribiform plate?

types II and III

9

3 types of epithelium in the nasal cavities?

keratinised stratified squamous epithelium; respiratory epithelium; olfactory mucosa

10

What is the pterion

the H-shaped sutures between the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid bone which is the thinnest part of the skull

11

Which bone contains the oragns of hearing and balance ?

Temporal bone

12

Which nerves are contained within the temporal bone?

Facial nerve, vestibulocochlear

13

What are the two parts to the temporal bone?

the squamous and petrous part

14

Where is the external ear?

from the auricle to tympanic membrane

15

Where is the middle ear?

the tympanic membrane to the oval window

16

What is contained in the middle ear?

the eustachian tube

17

What is the role of the middle ear?

amplify and conduct the sound waves to the internal ear

18

Where is the internal ear?

the oval window to the internal acoustic meatus

19

What is the role of the interal ear?

converts special sensory info into fluid waves and APs --> the brain

20

What is the helix of the ear?

the ring of cartilage around the outside of the ear

21

Nerve supply to the auricle of the ear (4)

C2,3 spinal nerve (most of auricle); CN VII (dotted around the opening); CN X (the inferior part of the external acoustic meatus + some tympanic membrane); CN V3 (the superior part of the external acoustic meatus + most of tympanic membrane)

22

where does the lateral surface of the superior half of the auricle drain?

parotid lymph nodes

23

Where does the cranial surface of the superior half of the auricle drain?

mastoid lymph nodes (deep and cervical)

24

Where does the rest of the auricle drain?

the superficial lymph nodes

25

Where is the eventual pathway of all the auricular lymphatic drainage?

deep cervical nodes --> thoracic duct or R. lymphatic duct --> venous angle

26

Skeleton of the external ear?

temporal bone and elastic cartilage

27

Type of cartilage around the external ear?

elastic cartilage

28

What composes the ear canal?

skin, cartilage, bone

29

What glands produce earwax?

ceruminous glands

30

What direction should you pull the auricle when examining a child?

posterioinferiorly

31

What direction should you pull the auricle when examining an adult?

posterosuperiorly

32

What is the thin part of the tympanic membrane called?

pars flaccida

33

What should appear on the tympanic membrane when examining with an otoscope?

a cone of light - anteroinferiorly

34

What is the umbo?

the most inwardly depressed part of the tympanic membrane

35

Primary nerve supply to external tympanic membrane

CN V3

36

nerve supply to internal tympanic membrane

CN IX

37

Where does the glossopharyngeal nerve supply sensory innervation? [ENT]

middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, nasopharynx, oropharynx, tonsils

38

What does the eustachian tube connect?

tympanic cavity to the lateral wall of the nasopharynx

39

CN's which can cause referred ear ache

V, VII, IX and X, C2/3

40

What are the auditory ossicles?

Malleus, Incus, Stapes

(Think I MISheard that)

41

where is the epitympanic recess?

superior to the tympanic membrane

42

Where does the footplate of the stapes attach

the oval window

43

What is properly posterior to the tympanic membrane?

tympanic cavity

44

Where is the adenoid tonsil?

in the nasopharynx

45

Where does the eustachian tube open?

in the nasopharynx

46

nerve supply of the eustachian tube?

CN IX

47

What nerve supplies the laryngopharynx?

CN X

48

What course does the facial nerve take out of the cranial cavity?

internal acousitc meatus and stylomastoid process

49

CN V3 sensory supplies...?(5)

the TMJ, the muscles of mastication, the teeth, parotid and submandibular gland, anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

50

Where does the facial nerve travel through the base of the skull?

the petrous temporal bone

51

Where does the facial nerve sensory supply?

sphenoid sinus, nasal mucosa, soft palate

52

Supply of the vagus nerve?

supraglottic larynx, laryngeal and lingual surfaces of the larynx,

53

supplies the taste buds on the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue?

chorda tympani of CN VII

54

Which salivary glands does CN VII supply?

submandibular and sublingual - chorda tympani

55

Which salivary glands does CN IX supply?

Parotid gland - via the otic ganglion

56

General sensory supply to the anterior tongue is from...

CN V3 - mandibular branch of trigeminal - foramen rotundum

57

Special sensory supply to the anterior tongue is from...

CN VII - facial

58

Sensory (general and special) supply to the posterior tongue is from...

CN IX - glossopharyngeal

59

Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull?

hypoglossal canal - travels alongside carotid sheath to the level of lingual artery

60

The muscles of the tongue are innervated by...

CN XII - hypoglossal

61

4 main muscles of the tongue

Genioglossus (big one), Styloglossus (most posterior), Palatoglossus (ant. to styloglossus), Hyoglossus (attaches hyoid)

62

Where is the blood supply to the tongue from?

lingual artery

63

Where does the lingual artery originate?

external carotid

64

Which nerve passes through the palatine foramen?

CN V2 - maxillary branch of trigeminal - foramen ovale

65

Bones of the palate?

two maxillary bones, two palatine