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Flashcards in anatomy, abdomen Deck (777)
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What is a chryptorchism?

Undescended testicle - remove if can't surgically descend or cancer.


What peritoneum is associated with inguinal hernias - mostly in males?



Kidney malignancy Wilms tumor - which gene?



When inferior poles of kidney fuse, what halts their ascent?

Inferior mesentery artery - "horseshoe kidney"


If kidneys fail to develop, is the amniotic fluid level affected?

Yes, because of lack of urine. Oligohydramnios results


Is hypoplastic lung related to oligohydramnios? If so, it is genetic?

Yes they are related, No, it is not genetic. Pulmonary hypoplasia is incomplete development of the lungs, resulting in an abnormally low number or size of bronchopulmonary segments or alveoli. A congenital malformation, it most often occurs secondary to other fetal abnormalities that interfere with normal development of the lungs. SEE that I have two different answers re if it is genetic.
Other source says: There may be a genetic component, but more commonly pulmonary hypoplasia is secondary to an underlying abnormality such as restrictive malformation of the chest wall and decreased fetal breathing (fetal neuromuscular disease), decreased fetal lung fluid (prolonged rupture of membrane, fetal renal dysplasias


What's an annular pancreas?

Ventral bud rotation gone astray, It should rotate dorsally and fuse with dorsal bud. An annular pancreas means it rotated ventrally, second part of the duodenum is surrounded by a ring of pancreatic tissue continuous with the head of the pancreas. This portion of the pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair the flow of food to the rest of the intestines.


What can failure of lateral folds in embryonic development result in?

Lateral folds are key to musculature in anterior abdominal wall - defects range from umbilical hernia (minor) to gastroschisis (major)


What is gastroschisis?

An opening forms in the baby's abdominal wall. The baby's bowel pushes through this hole. The bowel then develops outside of the baby's body in the amniotic fluid.


In relation to the esophagus, how much does the proximal foregut rotate and what nerve is involved?

90 degrees counterclockwise. Vagus nerve.


Half of baby's diaphragm is rising higher - what happened?

Eventration. One muscular hemidiaphragm fails to develop - due to lack of muscle or phrenic nerve function/development. Due to pressure, abdominal organs are pushed into thorax - pleuroperitoneal folds contribute, as does development of septum transversum (becomes central tendon)


Would esophageal atresia cause pneumonia?

No, it would end in a blind tube - and while associated with tracheoesophageal fistula, it does not open into the trachea, so pneumonia would not result.


What does the tracheoeosophageal septem separate?

The ventral wall of the forgut (esophagus) from the laryngottracheal tube. - a fistula would result in fluid from esophagus into trachea and possible pneumonia.


What does the septum transversum form?

The central tendon.


What do the pleuroperitoneal folds form?

The posterolateral part of the diaphragm.


What does the pleuropericarial fold form?

The fibrous pericardium.


What do the cervical myotomes form?

Musculature of diaphragm.


Malrotation of the midgut loop may result in what complication?

Midgut volvulus (without fixed mesentery).


Absence of an ascending colon is caused by what?

Failure of cecal bud to descend.


Does duplication of the intestine have a fixed mesentery?

Yes - no free movement.


What is congenital megacolon due to?

Failure of migration of neural crest cells into wall of colon - lack of parasympathetic postganglionic neurons.


What is Hirschsprung disease?

Congenital megacolon - neural crest migration problem.


What is rectal atresia?

Failure to adequately recanalize - both anal and rectum exist - but are not connected.


Incomplete separation of the cloaca would result in what?

Anal agenesis either with or without presence of a fistula.


What is the most common site of Meckel diverticulum?

Ileum. Outpouching is a persistence of vitelline duct and can be attached to the umbilicus.


Where is the most common site of ectopic pregnancy?

Uterine tubes -


Where is the most common site of implantation?



What nerve carries general visceral afferent fibers from abdominal organs and can be involved in referred pain?

The greater splanchnic nerve.


Does the dorsal primary rami of intercostal nerves carry messages from abdominal organs?

Yes - pain from these fibers would be sharp and localized as opposed to dull and diffuse as occurs in referred pain.


Does the vagus nerve transmit pain?