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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Deck (110)
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1

What type of cell are neurons?

permanent cells that do NOT divide in adulthood

2

What organelle is NOT present in the axon of neurons?

RER

3

If an axon is injured, what type of generation occurs?

Wallerian degeneration = degeneration distal to the injury and axonal retraction proximally

This allows for potential regeneration of axon (if in PNS)

4

What is the function of astrocytes?

physical support
repair
K+ metabolism
removal of excess neurotransmitter (NT)
component of BBB
glycogen fuel reserve buffer

5

If neural injury occurs, what is the response of astrocytes?

reactive gliosis

6

What are astrocytes derived from?

neuroectoderm

7

What is the function of microglia?

CNS phagocytes

8

What are microglia derived from?

mesoderm

9

HIV can infect what cell type?

HIV-infected microglia fuse to form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS

10

What is the function of myelin?

Wraps and insulates axons --> increases space constant and increases conduction velocity

11

What type of neurons are located in the CNS? PNS?

CNS - oligodendrocytes
PNS - Schwann cells

12

What myelinated the axons of neurons in the CNS?

oligodendroglia

13

What is the predominant type of glial cell in white matter?

oligodendroglia (1 cell can myelinated 30 axons)

14

What are oligodendroglia derived from?

neuroectoderm

15

What do oligodendroglia appear on H & E stain?

"fried egg" appearance

16

What diseases are associated with injury to the oligodendroglia?

Multiple sclerosis
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
leukodystrophies

17

What disease destroys Schwann cells?

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

18

What tumor is associated with Schwann cells?

acoustic neuroma (type of schwannoma)

*If bilateral, strongly associated with neurofibromatosis type 2

19

What type of sense do Meissner corpuscles sense?
Where are they located?
What is their description?

Sense: dynamic, fine/light touch (position sense = proprioception)
Location: glabrous (hairless) skin
Description: large, myelinated fibers, adapt quickly

20

What type of sense do Pacinian corpuscles sense?
Where are they located?
What is their description?

Sense: vibration, pressure (e.g. monofilament test)
Location: deep skin layers, ligaments, and joints
Description: large, myelinated fibers, adapt quickly

21

What type of sense do Merkel discs sense?
Where are they located?
What is their description?

Sense: pressure, deep static touch (e.g. shapes, edges), position sense
Location: basal epidermal layer, hair follicles
Description: large, myelinated fibers, adapt slowly

22

What nerve fibers are slow and unmyelinated?

C fibers

23

What nerve fibers are fast and myelinated fibers?

A-delta fibers

24

What do free nerve endings sense?

pain and temperature

25

What must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment?

perineurium (permeability barrier)

26

Match the location of the neurotransmitter synthesized in the following area of the brain:

locus ceruleus (pons)
ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)
Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain)
Basal nucleus of Meynert
nucleus accumbens

locus ceruleus (pons) - NE
ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain) - DA
Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain) - 5-HT
Basal nucleus of Meynert - ACh
nucleus accumbens - GABA

27

What NTs decrease in depression?

NE
DA
5-HT

28

What NTs increase in anxiety?

NE

29

What NTs decrease in anxiety?

5-HT
GABA

30

What NT changes are seen in Parkinson's disease?

decrease in DA
increase in 5-HT
increase in ACh