Anatomy and Physiology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology 2 Deck (77)
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1

What symptoms can be seen with severe hypotension when considering the watershed zones of the brain?

upper leg/upper arm weakness
higher-order visual processing deficits

2

Cerebral perfusion is primarily driven by...

pCO2

3

How does therapeutic hyperventilation help decrease intracranial pressure?

In cases of acute cerebral edema (stroke, trauma), a decrease in pCO2 will cause a decrease in cerebral perfusion and ultimately cause vasoconstriction

4

What is the MC site of a berry aneurysm?

the junction of the anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery

5

What palsy is associated with a lesion to the posterior communicating artery?

CN III palsy

6

What disease are Charcot-Bouchard micro aneurysms associated with?

chronic HTN

7

What is the condition where a patient has neuropathic pain due to thalamic lesions following a stroke?

central post-stroke pain syndrome

8

What vessels are ruptured in an epidural hematoma?

middle meningeal arteries

9

What intracranial hemorrhage shows a biconvex (lentiform) lens shape?

epidural hematoma

10

What vessels are ruptured in a subdural hematoma?

bridging veins

11

In what population are subdural hematoma more often seen?

elderly
alcoholics
blunt trauma
shaken baby

12

What can be seen on CT with a subdural hematoma?

crescent-shaped hemorrhage

13

What vessels are ruptured in a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

rupture of an aneurysm

often called "worst HA of my life" --> EMERGENCY

14

What is the MCC of intraparenchymal (hypertensive) hemorrhage?

systemic HTN (but also seen in amyloid antipathy, vasculitis, and neoplasms)

15

What are the areas most vulnerable during an ischemic stroke?

hippocampus (ischemic HYPOxia = HYPOcampus)
neocortex
cerebellum
watershed areas

16

How long does a patient have before irreversible brain damage during an ischemic stroke?

5 minutes

17

What is one contraindication for the use of tPA that can be detected using a CT?

hemorrhage

18

What is the MC site of hemorrhagic stroke?

basal ganglia

19

What type of necrosis results from an ischemic stroke?

liquefactive necrosis

20

What are the 3 types of ischemic strokes?

1. thrombotic
2. embolic
3. hypoxic

21

What is the treatment for ischemic stroke? What is the time frame within which you can use this treatment?

tPA if used within 3-4.5 hr of onset and no hemorrhage/risk of hemorrhage

22

What is the definition of a transient ischemic attack?

brief, reversible episode of focal neurologic dysfunction lasting <24 hrs without acute infarction

23

What is the pathway of CSF through the ventricles of the brain?

CSF made in ependymal cells of choroid plexus --> lateral ventricle --> 3rd ventricle via right and left inter ventricular foramina of Monro --> 4th ventricle via cerebral aqueduct (Sylvius) --> subarachnoid space via foramina of Luschka (lateral) and foramen of Magendie (medial)

24

What is the pathogenesis of a communicating hydrocephalus?

Decrease CSF absorption by arachnoid granulations --> increased intracranial pressure, papilledema, and herniation

25

What are the signs of a normal pressure hydrocephalus?

"Wet, wobbly, and wacky"

Urinary incontinence, ataxia, and cognitive dysfunction

26

What is the pathogenesis of a normal pressure hydrocephalus?

1. increase CSF production by choroidal tumors
2. impaired CSF absorption by arachnoid granulations damaged by tumor or meningitis

27

What is the key clinical feature of normal pressure hydrocephalus?

enlarged ventricles

28

What is interesting about hydrocephalus ex vacuo?

there is an apparent increase in CSF d/t neuronal atrophy (e.g. Alzheimer disease, advanced HIV, Pick disease)

29

What causes noncommunicating hydrocephalus?

structural blockage of CSF circulation within the ventricular system (e.g. stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius)

30

What many spinal nerves are there and how many for each section of the vertebral column?

31 spinal nerves in total

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal