Anatomy final part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy final part 3 Deck (30):
1

1) Mouth

continued

2

Teeth

32 permanent teeth between the ages of 17­34
1. 20 deciduous teeth (baby teeth) by the age of 2

3

Tongue

important for taste and mixing of food and saliva; swallowing
1. Papilla: bumps on the tongue that contain the taste bumps
a. Gustatory cells

4

Salivary Glands (3 pairs)

1. Parotid: cheek, just anterior to the ear
2. Sublingual: under the tongue
3. Submandibular: under the jaw
4. Functions
a. Secretes saliva which contains:
-Salivary amylase (ptyalin): begins the digestion of starch to sugar (maltose)
-Aids in swallowing
-Saliva + Food = Bolus
-Saliva is mostly mucus
-It is anti­bacterial

5

2) Pharynx

passageway for food and liquid. No digestion takes place here

6

3) Esophagus

mucus lined tube that connects the pharynx and stomach
i. Approximately 10 inches long

7

Cardiac Sphincter

muscular band that closes at the stomach

8

Heartburn

esophageal irritation from stomach acid

9

GERD

gastro­esophageal reflux disease; AKA chronic heartburn

10

Hiatal Hernia

a tear in the diaphragm causing the stomach to push up into the thoracic cavity

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4) Stomach

continued

12

Fundus:

enlarged portion to the left; where the food enters the stomach

13

Body:

main portion, central part

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Pylorus:

lower, narrow sections that opens into the small intestine (duodenum)

15

5) Small Intestine

1. Approximately 20­22 feet long
2. Divided into three sections

16

Duodenum

12 fingers/first 9 inches

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Jejunum

(8 feet) – in Latin means “empty of food”

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Ileum

(12 feet)

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Functions

1. The mucus membrane of the small intestine contains thousands of microscopic intestinal glands that secrete digestive enzymes
2. The main function is:
a. Absorption – through a rich capillary network contained in the
villi and microvilli
i. Villi and Microvilli
1. Fingerlike projections
b. Lacteal – lymphatic vessel contained within the villus for the
absorption of fat

20

6) Liver

i. Its only function in digestion is to produce bile
1. Bile: a green, fat­emulsifying enzyme made from red blood cells and drains into the right and left hepatic ducts and is stored in the Gallbladder

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7) Gall Bladder

A small muscular pouch under the liver

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Stores bile:

1. Contracts when large amounts of fat are detected in the chyme by the
mucosal sensory nerve fibers in the duodenum
2. Cholecystokinin is a hormone released by the duodenum when the fate
is detected
3. Causing the gallbladder to contract
4. The bile is secreted into the Cystic Duct Common Bile Duct
Duodenum

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8) Pancreas

-Pancreatic juice is the most important collection of digestive enzymes
-Secreted into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct

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3 Enzymes

continued

25

Protease (Trypsin)

protein – amino acids

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Lipase

fats – fatty acids and glycerol

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Amylase

carbohydrates – glucose

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9) Large Intestine

-Approximately 5ft in length
-Undigested plant fiber and unabsorbed food and water enter the cecom through the ileocecal valve

29

Divided into

1. Cecum
2. Ascending colon
3. Transverse colon
4. Descending colon
5. Sigmod
6. Rectum
7. Anus

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Functions

1. Vitamin K synthesis (blood clotting)
2. B­Complex vitamin formation
3. Water and mineral re­absorption
4. Chyme becomes feces
5. Excretion of fecal material
a. Defecation