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Flashcards in Benchmark Anatomy Deck (25):

Functions of Skeletal Muscle:

1. Movement
2. Posture
3. Heat Production


Microscopic structure of Skeletal Muscle

~Myofilaments: thick (containing the protein myosin) and thin (composed of action)
~Basic functional (contractile unit called sarcomere: sarcomeres separated from each other bands called z lines
-thick (myosin) and thin (actin) myofilaments slide past each other as a muscle contracts.
-Contraction requires calcium and energy rich ATP molecules (adenosine triphosphate)


Define: Motor Unit

~ Stimulation of a muscle by a nerve impulse is required before a muscle can shorten and produce movement.
~ A motor neuron is the specialized nerve that transmits an impulse to a muscle, causing contraction.
~ A neuromuscular junction is the specialized point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber it innervates.
~ A motor unit is the combination of a motor neuron with the muscle cell or cells it innervates.


Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Muscle

~ Atrophy: muscle cell size decreases
~ Hypertrophy: muscle cell size increases
-Strength Training exercise involving contraction of muscle against heavy resistance (anaerobic)
-Endurance training is the increases the muscle’s ability to sustain moderate exercise over a long period; it is sometimes called aerobic training


-Muscles: Actions of Muscles Studied

~Plantar flexion


Anatomy & Physiology of the Brain-Stem (Viral Function)

~ Medulla Oblongata-controls breathing and heart rate
~ Pons- Motor and sensory analysis; relays sensory input from the cerebellum to cerebrum
~ Midbrain- visual, hearing, eye and body movement (reactions)


Anatomy & Physiology of the Limbic System (Emotional Brain)

~Thalamus- associates sensations and emotions
~Hypothalamus- controls homeostasis (body temperature); emotions; thirst; hunger; sleep cycle; sexual desire
~Amygdala (temporal lobe)- memory; emotion; fear
~Hippocampus (medial part of temporal lobe)- learning and memory; converting short term memory into long term


Lobes of Cerebrum & their functions

~Frontal Lobe: reasoning; planning; parts of speech; movement; personality; problem solving
~Parietal Lobe: movement; orientation; recognition; perception of stimuli
~Temporal Lobe: perception and recognition of auditory stimuli; memory and speech
~Occipital Lobes: visual processing


Parts of a Neuron

~Dendrites- receive signals
~Axon- send signals
~Cell Bodies- interprets and produces signals


-Cranial Nerve Functions

“On Old Olympus Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hope”
~Spinal Acessory


-Anatomy of the Heart (chambers; valves; membranes)

-2 Atria (upper chamber)- receiving
-2 Ventricles (lower chamber)- discharging
-2 Atrioventricular Valves
-Bicuspid- between left atrium and ventricle
-Tricuspid- between right atrium and ventricle
-2 Semilunar Valves
-Pulmonary- between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
-Aortic-between the left ventricle and the aorta (to the body)
-Myocardium-the muscular wall of each chambers of the heart
-Endocardium- a thin layer of smooth tissue that lines the inside of each chamber (very slippery)
-Pericardium- opposed of 2 layers of fibrous tissue with a space in between filled with pericardial fluid


Coronary Heart Disease (#1 killer in America)

The myocardium receives its blood supply via the right and left coronary arteries


Electrical System of the Heart

~Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)- “pacemaker” located in the right atrium
~Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)- carries the signal from the atria to the ventricles
~Purkinije Fibers (Right and Left bundle branches)- continues signal through the ventricles



~A records of the hearts electrical activity
~Cannot predict future cardiac problems
~Only post and present maladies can be seen


Balloon Angioplasty; Coronary Bypass

a ballon catheter is placed into a blocked artery, inflated and a medicated stent (spring) is placed in the artery to prevent collapse


Anatomy of the Upper Respiratory Tract

~Nasal Cavity
~Paranasal Sinuses


Functions of the Paranasal Sinuses

~Decreases the weight of the skull
~Increases voice resonance
~Insulates eyes and dental roots from extreme temperature
~Warms and humidifies the air that is inhaled


Anatomy of the Lower Respiratory Tract



Types of Atelectasis

~Pneumothorax: air between pleura and ribcage
~Hemothorax: blood between pleura and ribcage


COPD (Asthma; Emphysema)

~Emphysema: destruction of the alveolar walls due to cigarette smoking
-Caused by smoking cigarettes
~Asthma: Bronchospasm (smooth muscle of the bronchioles)
-Caused by allergies, irritants, exercise, stress
-Treatment: Bronchodilators, steroids (prednisone)


Definition of Digestion

The process by which the body breaks down food into its smallest components (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids) through mechanical and chemical means. For the purpose of absorption of these vital nutrients (vitamins, minerals, water as well) and the elimination of waste (feces, urine)


Distinguish Primary and Secondary Structures

Primary: Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine
Secondary: Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas


Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach

-Fundus: enlarged portion of the left
-Body: central part
-Pylorus: lower, narrow section that opens into the small intestine (duodenum)
~Pyloric Sphincter- prevents the stomach contents from entering into the duodenum too quickly
~Rugae- folds in the mucosal layer when empty


-Anatomy and Physiology of the Small intestine

~Approximately: 20-22 ft long
~Divided up into 3 sections
-Duodenum (12fingers)- 1st 9 inches
-Jejunum (8ft) “empty of food”
~The Small Intestine is “held together” by the mesentery (connective tissue)


-Anatomy and Physiology of the Large intestine

~Approximately: 5 ft long
~Divided up into: Cecum, Ascending Colon, Transverse Colon, Descending Colon, Sigmoid, Rectum, Anus
~Undigested plant fiber and unabsorbed food and water enter the cecum through the ILEOCECAL VALVE
-Under the influence of good bacteria
~Further release of nutrients
~Vitamin K Synthesis (Blood Clotting)
~B-Complex vitamin formation
~Water and mineral re-absorption
~Chyme becomes feces
~Excretion of Fecal material: Defecation