Flashcards in Anatomy II Exam 2 Deck (60):
dealing with a system of vessels
what are the 2 type of vascular systems within the body?
clear, straw color; forms/ begins from tissue fluid; substance which flows through the lymph vessels
The substance, which bathes and surrounds the body cells.
The flow of all lymph in the human body, always begins in the smallest vessels
a. Maintaintissuefluid balance
b. Remove other waste products
c. Body’s basic defense system (phagocytosis, antibodies)
specialized mass of cells or type of tissue located throughout the body (strategically placed)
3 pairs of lymphoid tissue whose purpose is to protect the opening between mouth cavity proper and oral pharynx.
largest mass of lymph tissue in body; helps liver recycle red blood cells; located in the abdominal pelvic cavity
located at base of neck; largest and most active during infancy, T-cells produce antibodies for life span
filters for lymph, strategically placed throughout the body; there are 4 specific locations and all nodes are named for their location
Axillary Lymph nodes
located in armpit region, filter lymph from upper extremities or chest, most used to detect stage of malignancy of cancer
Cervical Lymph nodes
locatedinneck, used to diagnose Hodgkin’s disease in young adult males, filter lymph from head and neck
Inguinal Lymph nodes
locatedingroin,this is where bubonic plaque is present, filter lymph from lower extremities
Mesenteric Lymph nodes
locatedin intestines and filters lymph from the intestinal track or both large/small intestines. Used to detect stages of colon cancer
A special name given to lymph capillaries found only in the small intestine.
is the waxy, milky substance which is formed between digestive fat and lymph.; flow of chyle begin in the lacteals.
first lower enlarged portion of thoracic duct; Chyle coming from the small intestine and lymph coming from the lower extremities, stops here to mix
What are the only ducts of the lymph system that periodically dump into the blood stream?
1. Right lymphatic duct
2. Thoracic duct
Right lymphatic duct
lymph that originates on the right side of the head and neck. The right upper extremities, and right side of the chest will eventually drain through this duct.
the largest lymph duct in the human body. 3/4 of the lymph in the body drains through this duct. Lymph coming from the left upper extremities, left side of the head and neck, left side of the chest, the entire abdominal cavity, and both lower extremities will drain through this duct.
Once lymph has gone into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, it is now called what?
Flow of Lymph
Capillaries- Sm. intestines (Lacteals)
Right Lymphatic Duct or Thoracic Duct (TD-1st Cisterna Chyle for Lacteals)
percentage of hydrogen ion in solution; 7.3-7.4 slightly alkaline
How many liters of blood are in an adult body
a measure of the resistance to flow of a liquid (thickness) Blood moves 4.5 to 5.5 times viscus (slower) than water
normal body temperature is 98.6 F, 37 C; blood is 100.3 F, slightly warmer than normal body temperature
55% (Liquid portion) of non- clotted blood, slightly amber or straw color.
formed elements) 45% of whole human blood
What are the components of plasma?
8% Dissolved substances
protein naturally dissolved in plasma portion of blood
blood protein naturally found in plasma
blood protein present in blood plasma which will form the fibrous network when blood clot forms
NA – salt / K- potassium / Ca – calcium / Mg -magnesium
Food glucose - (blood sugar) / lipids - fats
urea - the primary constituent of urine ammonia
o2 - Oxygen / Co2 -Carbon dioxide / N2 - Nitrogen
component of plasma
dissolved within the plasma portion of blood.
factors called Factor E
(ASE) speed up the rate of a chemical reaction and not used up in the process.
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
biconcave discs shaped, non-nucleated, 4.5-5 million per cu. Mm of blood; crenation (shrink) hypertonic solution and hemolysis (bursting) hypotonic solution; originate in bone marrow 120 day life span normally; destroyed in the liver & spleen; The only function is to carry hemoglobin.
Leukocytes (white blood cells)
least # of blood cells; 5,000 – 9,000 per cu. Mm of blood, most numerous types (5 different types);defense of the body against infection by diapedesis (WBC ability to squeeze thru
pores/capillaries) and phagocytosis (cell ingestion, WBC will attempt to surround and ingest
anything foreign) when destroyed it forms puss
WBC’s which have absence of granules within protoplasm
one large central nucleus - this cell in humans is responsible for producing antibodies.
rid body of pus
WBC’s which contain granules within protoplasm
granules stain neither red or blue (neutral), most numerous of type of WBC in humans, 65% of WBC; its function to performs phagocytosis - ingest, surrounds, and destroys anything foreign.
granules of WBC that stain red
granules of WBC that stain blue. Responsible for allergic reactions
Functions of white blood cells - defend the body against infection through:
Absorption of fat
Formation of blood proteins
fragmented cells; 3,000 per cu. Mm; normal coagulation time is 3-5 minutes; plasma vs serum
liquid portion of non-clotted blood 92% H2O
the liquid portion of blood left over after blood has clotted.
when blood clots, the central clotting factor that were present and dissolved in the plasma portion have been used up in the clotting process; 3-5 minutes; smallest in size 3 - 4 microns, disc shaped; 300,00 per cu. mm; Origin - bone marrow.
Substances in blood that by themselves will promote blood clotting.
i. THROMBOPLASTIN – cephalin or thrombosinase
iv. FIBRINOGEN – forms boundaries of latticework
Substances in blood that inhibit clotting
ii. ANTIPROTHROMBIN (HEPRIN)
FUNCTION OF BLOOD:
c. Control of pH – 7.3 to 7.4
d. Control of water balance – 92% of plasma is H2O, can’t lose more than 1⁄2 or death
e. Defense against infection – by leukocytes (5)