Anatomy II Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy II Exam 2 Deck (60):
1

Vascular system

dealing with a system of vessels

2

what are the 2 type of vascular systems within the body?

blood vascular
lymph vascular

3

Lymph

clear, straw color; forms/ begins from tissue fluid; substance which flows through the lymph vessels

4

Tissue fluid

The substance, which bathes and surrounds the body cells.

5

Lymph capillaries

The flow of all lymph in the human body, always begins in the smallest vessels

6

Functions

a. Maintaintissuefluid balance
b. Remove other waste products
c. Body’s basic defense system (phagocytosis, antibodies)

7

Lymphoid tissues

specialized mass of cells or type of tissue located throughout the body (strategically placed)

8

Tonsils

3 pairs of lymphoid tissue whose purpose is to protect the opening between mouth cavity proper and oral pharynx.
1. Adenoids
2. Tonsils
3. Haranginial

9

Spleen

largest mass of lymph tissue in body; helps liver recycle red blood cells; located in the abdominal pelvic cavity

10

Thymus gland

located at base of neck; largest and most active during infancy, T-cells produce antibodies for life span

11

Lymph nodes

filters for lymph, strategically placed throughout the body; there are 4 specific locations and all nodes are named for their location

12

Axillary Lymph nodes

located in armpit region, filter lymph from upper extremities or chest, most used to detect stage of malignancy of cancer

13

Cervical Lymph nodes

locatedinneck, used to diagnose Hodgkin’s disease in young adult males, filter lymph from head and neck

14

Inguinal Lymph nodes

locatedingroin,this is where bubonic plaque is present, filter lymph from lower extremities

15

Mesenteric Lymph nodes

locatedin intestines and filters lymph from the intestinal track or both large/small intestines. Used to detect stages of colon cancer

16

Lacteals

A special name given to lymph capillaries found only in the small intestine.

17

Chyle

is the waxy, milky substance which is formed between digestive fat and lymph.; flow of chyle begin in the lacteals.

18

Cistera Chyle

first lower enlarged portion of thoracic duct; Chyle coming from the small intestine and lymph coming from the lower extremities, stops here to mix

19

What are the only ducts of the lymph system that periodically dump into the blood stream?

1. Right lymphatic duct
2. Thoracic duct

20

Right lymphatic duct

lymph that originates on the right side of the head and neck. The right upper extremities, and right side of the chest will eventually drain through this duct.

21

Thoracic duct

the largest lymph duct in the human body. 3/4 of the lymph in the body drains through this duct. Lymph coming from the left upper extremities, left side of the head and neck, left side of the chest, the entire abdominal cavity, and both lower extremities will drain through this duct.

22

Once lymph has gone into the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct, it is now called what?

blood

23

Flow of Lymph

Capillaries- Sm. intestines (Lacteals)
Vessels
Nodes (Specify)
Right Lymphatic Duct or Thoracic Duct (TD-1st Cisterna Chyle for Lacteals)
Blood

24

pH

percentage of hydrogen ion in solution; 7.3-7.4 slightly alkaline

25

How many liters of blood are in an adult body

4.5 liters

26

Viscosity

a measure of the resistance to flow of a liquid (thickness) Blood moves 4.5 to 5.5 times viscus (slower) than water

27

Temperature

normal body temperature is 98.6 F, 37 C; blood is 100.3 F, slightly warmer than normal body temperature

28

Plasma

55% (Liquid portion) of non- clotted blood, slightly amber or straw color.

29

Corpuscles

formed elements) 45% of whole human blood

30

What are the components of plasma?

92% water
8% Dissolved substances

31

Blood proteins

Serum albumin
Serum globulin
Fibrinogen

32

Serum Albumin

protein naturally dissolved in plasma portion of blood

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Serum Globulin

blood protein naturally found in plasma

34

Fibrinogen

blood protein present in blood plasma which will form the fibrous network when blood clot forms

35

Inorganic salts

NA – salt / K- potassium / Ca – calcium / Mg -magnesium

36

Nutrients

Food glucose - (blood sugar) / lipids - fats

37

Waste Products

urea - the primary constituent of urine ammonia

38

Respiratory gases

o2 - Oxygen / Co2 -Carbon dioxide / N2 - Nitrogen

39

Hormones

component of plasma

40

Antibodies

dissolved within the plasma portion of blood.

41

Essential clotting

factors called Factor E

42

Enzymes

(ASE) speed up the rate of a chemical reaction and not used up in the process.

43

Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)

biconcave discs shaped, non-nucleated, 4.5-5 million per cu. Mm of blood; crenation (shrink) hypertonic solution and hemolysis (bursting) hypotonic solution; originate in bone marrow 120 day life span normally; destroyed in the liver & spleen; The only function is to carry hemoglobin.

44

Leukocytes (white blood cells)

least # of blood cells; 5,000 – 9,000 per cu. Mm of blood, most numerous types (5 different types);defense of the body against infection by diapedesis (WBC ability to squeeze thru
pores/capillaries) and phagocytosis (cell ingestion, WBC will attempt to surround and ingest
anything foreign) when destroyed it forms puss

45

Agranulocytes

WBC’s which have absence of granules within protoplasm

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Lymphocytes

one large central nucleus - this cell in humans is responsible for producing antibodies.

47

Monocytes

rid body of pus

48

Granulocytes

WBC’s which contain granules within protoplasm

49

Neurophils

granules stain neither red or blue (neutral), most numerous of type of WBC in humans, 65% of WBC; its function to performs phagocytosis - ingest, surrounds, and destroys anything foreign.

50

Eusinophils

granules of WBC that stain red

51

Basophils

granules of WBC that stain blue. Responsible for allergic reactions

52

Functions of white blood cells - defend the body against infection through:

Diapedesis
Tissue repair
Absorption of fat
Formation of blood proteins

53

Thrombocytes (platelets)

fragmented cells; 3,000 per cu. Mm; normal coagulation time is 3-5 minutes; plasma vs serum

54

Plasma

liquid portion of non-clotted blood 92% H2O

55

Serum

the liquid portion of blood left over after blood has clotted.

56

Fibrinogen

when blood clots, the central clotting factor that were present and dissolved in the plasma portion have been used up in the clotting process; 3-5 minutes; smallest in size 3 - 4 microns, disc shaped; 300,00 per cu. mm; Origin - bone marrow.

57

Substances in blood that by themselves will promote blood clotting.

i. THROMBOPLASTIN – cephalin or thrombosinase
ii. PROTHOMBIN
iii. CALCIUM
iv. FIBRINOGEN – forms boundaries of latticework

58

Substances in blood that inhibit clotting

i. ANTITHROMBIN
ii. ANTIPROTHROMBIN (HEPRIN)

59

FUNCTION OF BLOOD:

a. Transport–O2,CO2,food,waste,hormones
b. Temperatureregulation–98.6
c. Control of pH – 7.3 to 7.4
d. Control of water balance – 92% of plasma is H2O, can’t lose more than 1⁄2 or death
e. Defense against infection – by leukocytes (5)

60

Chemistry of clotting blood.

a) Fragmentation of platelets released a chemical called thromboplastin.
b) Thrombaptastin neutralizes antiprothrombin, thus liberating prothrombin.
c) Prothrombin unites with calcium to form thrambin.
d) Thrambin and fibrinogen from fibrin.
e. Fibrin and blood cells form the clot within three to five minutes.